The global distribution of poverty
Poverty means being unable to afford basic things such as safe drinking water, food, shelter, sanitation, health care and education.
The international poverty line is the minimum level of income considered necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living in a given country. The world Bank has set the international poverty line at less than $1.25 a day. However, Extreme poverty is defined as living on less than $1 a day - which severly linits a persons ability to provide for their basic needs, such as food, water and shelter.
Main causes of poverty & its effects
Poverty is the highest in the rural areas of developing countries where subsistence economies prevail.
- In subsistence economies, people find it difficult to provide themselves with enough food. Malnutrition can lead to the spread of diseases which make people too ill to work, or farm. With no surplus crops to sell, a lack of personal income means it is also difficult to escape poverty through investigating in better technology to increase food production, or afford schooling to improve job prospectus etc.
- Overpopulation in rural areas can lead to poor farming practices (e.g. overgrazing) which cause soil exhaustion and a decline in soil fertility. Low crop (food) production results in malnourishment and the inability to work.
- Long term malnutrition and poor sanitation can make them more vulnerable to short term disasters such as extreme weather events, (e.g. drought, flooding) which can increase poverty.
- In Sub Saharan Africa, almost 2/3rds of the population have HIV/AIDS. The effects on families of HIV/AIDS can include loss of income, the diversion of efforts into care and medicine, and the withdrawal of children from school, either because of lack of money or because they are needed for agricultural work.
- War can also increase poverty because there is a destruction of property, a lack of work and reduced crop yields.
- War can also result in an influx of refugees into an area but they are dependent on external assistance for shelterm food, water and often live in poor living conditions in refugee camps. Their presence may also contribute to overpopulation and put a further strain on resources for local people.
Vicious circle/cycle of poverty
The causes of poverty are often complex because usually it results from a combination of factors which are linked to each other. It can create a cycle of poverty which becomes difficult to break.
(Look at pg 9 in study guide for cycle)
indicators to assess global distribution of povert
Poverty is caused by a low level of income which contributes to low levels of nutrition, school enrolment and health amongst others.
- High death rate
- Low life expectancy
- High IMR
- People per doctor
- Children enrolled in primary school
- GDP (Gross Domestic Product) & GNP (Gross National Product)
- Average wealth per person = Per capita of GNP and GDP
- Amount of exports and % of people unemployed
- % urban and rural
- % fuelwood in energy mix
GDP and GNP
One of the simplest ways to assess the global distribution of poverty is to compare levels of national wealth. However, using just GNP/GDP to measure a country's level of development can have its limitations..
Gross Domestic Product (GNP) is the value of all goods and services produced by a country in a year
Gross National Product (GNP) is the GDP of a country PLUS any money that has been earned by investment abroad (e.g. earnings from companies working abroad)
The GNP/GDP are expressed in US dollars and often given as PER CAPITA which means the total figure is divided by the total population
It's more useful to use GDP per capita rather than GDP where comparing the wealth of 2 countries as: it shows average income per person in the country so the average income can be compared when doing it per head. GDP makes it seem very similar but one country may be a lot wealthier - so per capita is more accurate
+ & - Of using GNP/GDP to measure development
- Indicates the average income of a country and is expressed in US dollars so it's easy to compare one country with another
- A higher GNP/GDP indicates the country has more industries and services indicating a higher level of ECONOMIC development
- There is a strong correlation between GNP/GDP and the social development of a country. E.g. a country with a higher GNP can usually afford to spend more on health care, education and general living standards are also higher.
- The GNP and GDP can be adjusted to purchasing power parity (PPP) to more accurately compare standards of living across different countries. It takes into account the idea that a typical basket of goods may cost more in one country than another.
+ & - of using GNP/GDP to measure development
The GDP/GNP can hide inequalities as it doesn't show the distribution of wealth WITHIN a country. (E.g. Saudi Arabia, with its oil it has a high GDP so ranks well on global scale. However, its wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few people, and for most of the pop, living conditions, health care & education are poor.
The GDP/GNP don't take into account economic activity that doesn't use money. E.g. LEDC's usually have larger subsistence economy or informal economy (e.g. bartering, cash in hand, unpaid work). As a result , the GDP/GNP often understates the true level of economic development in a poorer country.
In recent decades COMPOSITE INDICES have been used to give a fuller picture of the level of development of a country. There are many different examples of composite indicators, for example, the physical quality of life index (PQLI), human suffering index, the human poverty index to name just a few. However, the most widely used composite indicator is the Human Development Index (HDI)
The Human Development Index (HDI)
A statistic used to rank countries by their level of 'human development'. This is based on the:-
- GDP per capita
- Life expectancy
- Education (e.g. literacy rate and average years of schooling)
+ & - of using HDI to measure development
Closer to 1 = most developed
- The higher the HDI, the more developed the country is. E.g. Norway is the most developed country in the world with an HDI of 0.965. The country showing the least development is Niger with an index of 0.311.
- It indicates a country's level of economic and social development
- It can be used to measure the relative development of a country. E.g. Swazilandm with an index of 0.500, could be said to be about half as developed as Norway with an index of 1.
- It contains no measure that refers to human rights or freedom
Case study: Poverty in Afghanistan
Economic indicator that shows Afghanistan's very poor: GDP Per capital - The GDP per capita is only $1000 compared to the UK which is $36500. This shows that ther wealth is no where near an MEDC and the people living in Afghanistan are poor.
Social indicator: life expectancy (49 yrs) - The life expectancy is 49 yrs (UK is 80.17) this suggests that the health care is not available to many people and may not be available due to them not being able to afford it also diseases can't be treated due to not being able to afford it.
Composite indicator: HDI 0.4 and world rank 172/177 - the HDI rank is quite low, this is suggesting that the social development and living standards are quite poor (as UK is 0.897), the world rank is 172 which shows it's one of the world's poorest countries (compared to UK being 12)
Afghanistan in stage 2 of DTM:
- High BR & FR& Falling DR
- Low % elderly - low life expectaancy and high DR
- Less jobs -> high dependency ratio -> youthful pop
How situations caused poverty in afghanistan:
Lack of education (social):
- Don't have basic skills to do jobs
- Can't work in jobs that require them to read/write so can't earn money
- Girls denied education - only 12% females literate - 89& women had no education
- Less professionals as educated flee the country - brain drain
30 years of war (ECONOMIC)
- Money spent on manufacturing weapons (Russian War 1979-1989)
- Houses, roads, schools, hospitals and farmland destroyed
- 5 million refugees in 2007 so completely dependent on aid from countries like Pakistan
- Difficult to trade and very unsafe still
- Girls schools that were burnt down have to be rebuilt
- Ancient Lamal System provides water for rural areas destroyed by IED's
Poor quality land (ENVIRONMENTAL):
- Can't do any farming as infertile soil/land
- Cutting down of trees -> desertification
- No personal income to invest in farming
Impact of the Taliban regime/weak govt today (POLITICAL):
- Corruption -> money from NATO ($135 billion a year) goes to country but itsn't going where it should be such as building houses/schools/hospitals
- Govt. dependent on aid as no tax payers
- Rely on opium produce
- Uni's closed down so lack of skilled work force so lack of tax payers and can't get into practical roles.
ADDRESSING poverty on a global scale
The Millennium Development Goals
In 2000, the UN summit established the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It is probably the most significant major attempt to reduce poverty ever undertaken. There are 8 MDGs & within these are a series of targets – most set for 2015 using 1990 as a benchmark.
1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2) Achieve universal primary education
3) Promote gender equality and empower women
4) Reduce child mortality
5) Improve maternal health
6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, other diseases
7) Ensure environmental sustainability
8) Global partnership for development
The eight MDGs are aimed at tackling the causes of poverty- but there are connections between them. By addressing one MDG, progress in other MDGs is possible.
Develop a global partnership for development can lead to eradicating extreme poverty and hunger as MEDC's can help with aid for the poor
Develop a global partnership for development can combat HIV/AIDS,malaria, and other diseases as they may fund for healthcare/clinics
Ensuring environmental sustainability could eradicate extreme poverty and hunger as crops for food and surplus crops for income
Promoting gender equality and empowerment for women could lead to combating HIV/AIDS,malaria, and other diseases as if women are in education there's less **** etc.
Promoting gender equality and empowerment of women can lead to achieve universal primary education as women/girls get jobs/education - more skilled professionals
Promoting gender equality and empowering women can reduce child mortality as there's better health so reduced mortality
Achieving universal primary education can combating HIV/AIDS,malaria, and other diseases as children can be education about sexual health, contraception use etc. and also taught about how the diseases spread
Progress of MDGs
MDG 1 (Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty. Target: reduce $1 a day poverty by half):
- World poverty falling due to Chinese economic growth
- N. Africa target already met/expected to be met by 2015
- Western Asia making no progress
MDG2 (Achieve universal primary education. Target: primary schooling for all by 2015):
- Progress overall but too slow to meet target
- Been dramatic in Africa
- Caucasia and Central Asia making no progress
- Eastern Asia and N. Africa already met target/expected to be met by 2015
MDG 3 (Promote gender equality and empower women. Target: increase womens paid employment):
- Significant gain in girls employment and target will be met on time
- Slow progress/improvement in women's economic and political participations
- Alreadt met/expected to be met by 2015 in E. Asia and Latin America & Carribean
MDG 4 (Reduce child mortality. Target: reduce mortality of under 5 yr olds by 66%):
- Progress everywhere and global child mortality fallen by 1/3
- Children in rural areas more at risk (compared to urban)
- E. Asia, N. Africa and Latin America & Carribean met target/expected to be met by 2015
Progress of MDGs
MDG 5 (Improve maternal health. Target: reduce maternal mortality by 75%):
- Easten Asia and Caucasia & Central Asia already met target or expected to be met by 2015
- Sub Saharn Africa not progressing
MDG 6 (Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. Target: halt and reverse spread of TB):
- Latin America & Carribean, N. Africa, E. Asia, S. Asia already met target or expected to be met by 2015
- Sub Saharan Africa and Caucasia and Central Asia progress is insufficient to reach the target
MDG 7 (Ensure environmental sustainability. Target: reduce forest loss):
- E. Asia, W. Asia and N. Africa already met target or will by 2015
- Sub Saharan Africa's progress is insufficient to reach the target
- S. Asia and Oceania making no progress
MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development. Target: making Internet widely accessible):
- Sub Saharan Africa and S. Asia progression is insufficient to make progress
- E. Asia, Latin America & Carribean, W. Asia already met target or expected to be met by 2015
Success and limitations of MDGs
SUCCESS OF MDGs
- Children and mums who would have died at birth didn't
- Education is increasing and less malaria etc.
- 40 million in school
- Ethiopia govt. has developed. Saving mothers and kids lives
- More people receving drugs for diseases
- 4 million more receiving drugs for HIV
- Provides focus on how to tackle poverty
LIMITATIONS OF MDGs
- Due to recession this is harder to do
- Don't have necessary political help to progress more
- Goals putting off onto wrong track = goals are very technical
- Goals are too narrow - nothing about safety etc.
- Should incl. more on politics and climate change
- Don't paint the whole picture
- Don't take security, human rights and equality into consideration so are not being tackled
The support of the international community is essential in helping progress towards the MDGs in developing countries – and one of the main ways in which this can be done is through the provision of aid.
Types of aid:
- Bilateral: Aid given from one goverment to another
- Multilateral: When money is given by goverments to international organisations to assist programmes in poorer nations (WORLD BANK, UNESCO)
- NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations): Many of which are charities (e.g. Oxfram, Comic Relief) distribute aid in a variety of ways
In 2002, MEDCS agreed to set a target of target 0.7% of their GNP as aid to LEDCs. However, economic recession has meant that many countries have cut back on their foreign spending (but not the UK – who have kept to this target!)
Short term aid (humanitarian) - health care, GP, pregnant women support, children, malaria etc. To try improve their life and help - immediate relief.
Long term aid (developmental) - help people get on their feet (e.g. help farmers grow drought resistant crops). Develop countries future.
Limitations with aid provided: Not easy for NGOs to get where needed, countries become too dependent on aid, people giving aid may have to leave the country due to political problems; if multicultural or bilateral give money the donor country say you need to spend money in our country (tied aid) e.g. USA gave Africa HIV drugs and said spend money in the USA for more HIV drugs (that were more expensive)
Other UN agencies
Other UN agencies which help to address issues associated with global poverty....
At present the UN has a number of specialized agencies/ organizations that carry out various functions.
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF): Protects the rights of children and young people e.g. distribute vaccines and train teachers.
World Health Organisation (WHO): Providing leadership on global health matters e.g. distribute vaccines & drugs; & carrying out various health-related campaigns. UN Security Council: Maintain international peace and security e.g. Peace keeping forces ,cease fires embargoes. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR): Protect and support refugees e.g. tents and food aid in refugee camps, assist with repatriation etc. The World Bank is another agency belonging to the UN. In the past the World Bank has been blamed on causing poverty by providing loans to developing nations. A loan needs paying back and the World Bank charged interest ...between 1968 and 1980 “developing world” debt increased 20% per year! The UN are hoping that the MDGs will put right past mistakes in addressing poverty.
DFID's attempts to address poverty
Many MEDCs have set up a governmental department to oversee their spending of foreign aid. They have used the framework of the MDGs to better focus their overseas spending so that they are more effective in reducing global poverty. For example the, UK government has DFID.
Plans for overseas aid SWOT analysis:
STRENGTHS of the new approach:
- Some 20% of DFID's total funding to Afghanistan is spend in Helamd, goes to fund areas that are outside the traditional aid priorties (e.g. health and education)
- New district council buildings, courts and police stations funded by DFID
WEAKNESSES of the new approach:
- Some countries lose direct British fundting (e.g. Bosnia and Vietnam) as seen to "graduated" from poverty
- British aid becoming a political issue in India and Britain. Controversial because of India's rapid economic growth and it's nuclear weapons capability
OPPORTUNITIES (hopes) of the new approach:
- 50 million will be helped in health and education
- 11 million children will be put through school
- 10 million women will receive safe contraception
- More people will have access to safe drinking water and safe sanitation than there are households in the UK
THREATS associated with the new approach: some spendings such as on infrastructure may not have benefits that can be measured in a scientific way
no development without security&no security withou
The issue surrounding security and development will be discussed in the context of AFGHANISTAN. Afghanistan has nine MDGS instead of the usual eight goals MDG 9 in Afghanistan is to “Enhance Security”. This additional MDG for Afghanistan recognises the critical role of peace and security in achieving development in the country. The UN has also agreed an extension to the date by which its MDGs should be achieved, from 2015 to 2020
6 views of Afghanistan today:
Widow: Husband killed in suicide attack selling veg (locals not safe); women become docs; girls and boys go to school;women don't have to wear burqa; hopes American's leave and suicide attacks stop.
Female doctor: Senior docs left (brain drain) when Taliban in power; have all equipment in hospital now; she's not sure if her kids are safe when they go school or herself; Taliban let women work in hospital; when Taliban in power there was no electricity and lack of medical equipment.
Journalist: Atmosphere changed when Taliban removed from power; people have opportunity to talk about their basic rights; part of big international community again; open society and freedom of speech is back.
Farmer: Cultivating opium in Taliban; son goes school now; living cost increased; nothing changed except schooling; roads paved now and electricity in some places; suffering more - opium makes more money than veg; more security now.
Shop owner (music & DVDs): Moved back from Pakistan after Taliban; more peace now; increased security and better National Army and police force increased; says country will develop further; Taliban years he became a refugee, his shop was banned; lack of equipment and no airforce-army and police force-only have this due to aid
Police man: Taliban carrying out suicide attacks; more people and security but not enough due to taliban insurgents; more schools, roads, bridges and clinics built, people trust police, salary not enough-family can't live off it.
Main issues currently in Afghanistan
Security issues currently facing people living in Afghanistan:
- Taliban insurgents
- Refugees suffer
- No/very little human rights
- Taliban supporters still exist
- Bombs, shootings etc. threat to people
- Suicide bombings
- Rural areas suffer
Development issues facing the country:
- Dependent on aid "Aid juggernauts"
- Still in stage 2 of DTM
- Highest IMR in world
- Salary is not enough
- Brain Drain
- Illegal opium trade
- Low GDP
- Low tax base
- 50-60% in poverty
- High unemployment
- Living cost increased but salary is the same
- Subsistence economy
How can security impact on development?
- Lack of security affects development as it haults/slows development - e.g. people may not build schools due to taliban supporters. If the country wants to develop it needs to be more secure.
How can development impact on security?
- More developed = more secure as can afford army and police force. More developed - more security.
What does this suggest about the relationship between security and development?
- The lower the development, the lower the security. To reduce confliect countries need to develop.
1. A lack of security hinders development
Case study: The HEP turbine project at Kajaki Dam, Helmand Province.
Based in: Helmand
Funded by: US govt.
Development issues facing the region: Taliban land so difficult to get equipment; Army had to fight off Taliban to transport turbine; Taliban took control of 2 nearby areas.
Security issues which led to damn's postponement: Lack of equipment; Poor infrastructure etc; Road not secure enough for cement needed to install it at the site; Chinese company contracted to install turbine left overnight for security reasons.
Postponement of the dam will hinder the development of the region as: No/very little electricity.
2. Greater security decreases development....
Lashkar Gar, the capital of Helmand Province.
What security issues did Lashkar Gar (capital of Helmand Province) have in the past?
- Resembled a ghost town, deserted streets, burnt vehicles, gun fire.
How was security improved in the city?
- People have an option to fly to Kabul.
- Fast-rising buildings.
- Markets filled with shoppers and restaurants, blaring loud music.
- There's now cars, not armed vehicles.
- Now have an airport - new daily flights.
- Open air strip that was open only for Western aid agencies.
What evidence is there that greater security has led to increased economic development in the town?
- Markets filled with shoppers.
- Traders had to use Lashkar Gar - kabul road, which runs through the Taliban strongholds.
- Security is good, people have helped business.
- Heavy fighting outside city, people have come to Lashkar Gar so there's cheap labour as people move in.
- Airport built.
- Hospitals and private clinics built.
progress in security & development in Afghanistan
70% of Afghans think security has improved in recent years.
Development has improved in recent years - employment is increasing.
One year ago, 29% of Afghans thought job prospects were good, now that has risen to 41%.
The challenges of multicultural societies in the U
What is a multicultural society?
A multicultural society contains people from different national, linguistic, religious and/ or cultural backgrounds. The UK is an example of a multicultural society.
What % of UK's pop is from ethnic minorities: 14%
What is the largest ethnic minority group in the UK today: Asian
What do you think is the main reason(s) for the presence of ethnic minorities in the UK today: EU population, labour shortages after WW2.
The white population of Huddersfield is 81% and blow the UK average. Why do you think there is a high concentration of ethnic minorities in the town: University and textile industry.
10% of Hyde Park's population is Asian
Leeds average is 5% - it is double the Leeds average
There's a high concentration of Asian's here because of cheap housing, the community and white flight.
REASONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MULTICULTURAL SOCIETIES IN THE UK
The UK is a multicultural society because of immigration and the inter-marriages that have taken place since. Mass immigration into the UK started after World War two
Terminology associated with immigration
Legal immigrant – a person who comes into a country to settle. Migration is usually for economic reasons (for work).
Illegal immigrant – a person who takes up residence in a foreign country without official permission to do so.
Asylum Seekers are people who have fled from their country of origin because they claim to be victims of persecution.
If the claims of an Asylum Seekers are found to be genuine, then they are granted Refugee status in the host country
reasons why britain became a multicultural society
1940s-1960s: large wave of immigrants from countries of the former British Empire (e.g. especially The Caribbean, India and Pakistan) because:
- Immigrants were needed to help reconstruct the British economy after WW2 due to shortages in the labour force following loss of men in the world wars.
- There were no restrictions on immigration into UK from the British Empire and Commonwealth - allows them to live and work in British Empire without a visa.
1972: Influx of Ugandan Asians into the UK because:
- Idi Amin (Military dictator and president of Uganda) suddenly decided to expel all Asians from Uganda in 1972. Most held a British passport so were able to migrate to the UK.
1980s-1990s: A growth in asylum seekers to the UK from countries affected by conflict e.g. Afghanistan. They'd flee because:
- To protect themslves and/or their family
- To seek help and employment
Since 2004, there has been an increase in immigration to the UK from Eastern Europen countries, especially Poland because:
- For economic reasons (to find work) and temporary in nature
- Headed to UK because no border restrictions imposed
- British Nationality Act 1948 caused a rush of immigration into the UK from former colonies
- The Empire Windrush was the name of the "immigrant ship" from the Caribbean
- 66,000 West Indians rushed to enter the UK in 1962 to beat the door being slammed shut by the 1962 immigration act
- The 1972 Immigration Act restricted movement from Commonwealth countries as it required migrants to have a job before they arrived, to possess special skills or who would meet the "labour needs£ of the national economy
Issues related to multicultural societies in the U
In 1968 Enoch Powell (a Conservative MP for Wolverhampton) first warned about the dangers of mass immigration into the UK in his "Rivers of Blood" speech.
Why was Enoch Powell concerned about the impacts of mass immigration from the Commonwealth?
- British white people feel like they are being treated like 2nd class citizens, competing for jobs, housing etc.
- Overpopulation in Britain
- Not enough hospital beds, schools etc.
- 50,000 immigrants coming into country a year
- He estimated by 2000, 1 million people or 1 in 10 of the population would be of immigrant descent
- British White say they are not being racist - just saying what is right
- Mass immigration causing problems for Brits and immigrants themselves
Over 40 years on, the debate goes on as to whether immigration is causing Britain's society to fragment and whether Enoch Powell was right. Today it's EU immigration causing problems and conservaties are trying to stop this. Back then it was prejudice. Differences is that today we accept multiculturalism, back then we didn't.
Issues associated with multicultural Britain
In the initial phases of immigration, multiple occupancy in rented accommodation in inner-city areas (terraced houses) was widespread. As migrants are often a source of cheap labour they have tended to concentrate in the poorest housing areas of major cities. Such concentrations are reinforced by later migrants who seek the support and security of living near friends and relatives within an ethnic community. More recently there has been greater owner occupancy and some more wealthy individuals have moved out into more suburban areas. In addition, many individuals from ethnic minorities run a small business such as a shop, and live in part of the same building.
Concentrations of minorities in inner-city areas have led to some schools being dominated by one ethnic group, which has affected education requirements. For example, special English lessons may be needed for children and their parents (mothers in particular), and bilingual reading schemes may be introduced. In some areas, special religious provision for minority groups has developed into separate schooling, known as faith schools”, but this is rare. In some areas, holiday patterns, school timetables and school meals are being modified to reflect the ethnic mix of the areas concerned in an effort to enhance mutual understanding of culture, particularly amongst the young.
New migrants can find it difficult to obtain employment and to integrate if they donot speak English. Second-generation migrant children, educated in the UK, grow up speaking the language and have different aspirations from their parents. They are more likely to integrate, and this can cause tension within the ethnic group if they adopt the culture of the host country.
Issues associated with multicultural Britain
Migrants are likely to follow a different religion from the host population and this may cause friction with employers and authorities when migrants wish to adhere to their own religious calendars and practices.
In the UK, there has been legislation on anti-racism, employment rights and equal opportunities to combat discrimination, prejudice and racism. However, the cost of state benefits for migrants’ housing, education and unemployment may still cause resentment and racial intolerance from members of the host population. The government policy of constructing centres to house asylum seekers in rural areas of the UK has caused concern and resentment among local residents. Migrants now account for one in eight of the UK’s working age population, which some now estimate as boosting economic output by £6 billion (2007). Much of this labour is aimed at the unskilled and low-skilled employment available. Others There are times when the issue of multiculturalism rises to the fore in a negative sense when there are terrorist incidents on UK soil. The recent incidents of the “7/7 bombings” in July 2005 and at Glasgow airport in 2007 which owe their origin to “home-grown” Islamic fundamentalist terrorists illustrate this.
Benefits associated with a multicultural society i
- Multicultural society
- People less predjudice
- Different food an shops
- Understand more about different cultures
- Younger generation less predjudice
- Older generation may be more predjudice
- Without immigration the UK's population would be in natural decrease
- Higher active population to support elderly and youthful dependants
- Dependency ratio would get lower as more tax payers so govt. receive more revenue
- Less strain on NHS
- Own their own businesses
- Filled jobs in UK, e.g. doctors, labourers etc.
- Unwanted jobs taken (e.g. farming-potato picking)
- Contribute to tax as they pay
Case study: multicultural issues in Bradford
Bradford is a city with a multicultural society.
Reasons for ethnic mix in Bradford:
- white flight
- chain migration (move there because already know people there)
- factory jobs
- cheap houses in inner city and close to factories
(Look in SG page 61 for table)
Key points arising on Bradford's ethnic mix:
- Higher non-British white community - especially Pakistani's
- Diversity index score of 0.40
- Frizinghall has the highest conc. of Pakistani's in England and Wales
- Pakistan population is heavily concentrated within inner areas of Bradford and makes up 1/2 the population inwards such as Toller, university, little Horton and Bradford Moor.
- 2.7% pop of Bradford = Indians
processes which led to conc. of ethnic groups in B
White flight: Where ethnic minorities move into a district and white people move out
Ethnic absolutism: People with similar ethnic characteristics choose to locate together because they prefer to live with people who speak the same language, have same the customs and religious practices. This means that even with increasing wealth, people will still choose to live in the same ethnic community
Geographical Housing Inertia: Once an area becomes dominated by a particular ethnic group, it is likely to continue with a clustering together of people with a similar ethnic/cultural background
Chain migration: A social process by which immigrants who have settled in an area then help others from their family or community abroad to join them in the same area in the UK
Ethnic segregation: The clustering together of people with similar ethnic or cultural characteristics into separate urban residential areas. This can also resulted in segregation through schooling.
Chain migration + white flight = ethnic absolutism --> geographical housing inertia
Issues of multicultural society in Bradford
Issues in housing
- Manningham (Inner city area) 75-90% Asian and Suburbs (Tong and Wisbey) 90% white
- Geographical housing interia - whites keep moving to stay amongst white people
- Poorest housing conditions in inner city where Asian's are
- Frizinghall highest conc. of Pakistan's in the UK - begaan since 1997 (India's independence) and textile industry and cheap houses = immigrants in inner city -> chain migration -> white flight = segregation
Issues in racism
- White flight - segregation
- Racially segregated schools
- Riots in 2007 - district of Manningham. 75% Asian. White youths attacked Asian businesses
Issues in education
- "Linking Project" = encourage education school being linked together so children can mix
- Racially segregated schools
- Different ethnic groups went to different schools
- Academic achievement for students of Pakistani origin is only 30% 5 A*-C GCSE's, well below Bradford average
- Geographical separation - between white & Asian population
- Different ethnic groups went to different youth centres etc. Council used to have multi-cultural policy in town. Contributed to closed communities - funding given to different ethnic groups
- Kids bussed from all Asian school to all white and vice versa to break barriers between children
Key figures to learn with Bradford case study
71% white in Bradford
20% Asian (mainly Pakistani) in Bradford
70-90% of Asian in Mannigham (inner city area of Bradford)
90% of whites in Tong and Wibsey (suburban areas of Bradford)
2001 was the date of Bradford riots
Change in attitudes towards multiculturalism
In theory, the longer a multicultural society exists, the more integrated the ethnic groups are into a community. The local population become more accustomed to different cultures and religions so that prejudices and tensions decrease over time. Language difficulties in the ethnic population also become less obvious. However, attitudes can also change . For example:-
Multiculturalism in the UK can be viewed negatively when there are acts of terrorism
immigration is welcomed in times of economic growth but resented during times of economic recession
Separatism within &/or across the national boundar
What is separatism? An attempt by a minority group within a country to gain greater independence or separation from the main country in order to protect its individualism.
Case study one: Scotland
Independence for Scotland (what you already know about Scottish referendum):
- Alastair Darling=wanted Scotland to remain part of the UK
- Govts. write paper of independence
- Holyrood = Scottish Parliament 1998
- Alex Salmond = leader of SNP and was 1st minister of Scotland (resigned due to 'no' vote)
- SNP = Scottish National Party - nationalism
- Yes campaign: Nicola Sturgen = in SNP and was deputy 1st minister - now 1st minister
- Yes! = 90% of Scottish water and revenue goes to UK. Only get 10% of UK revenue
- 1707 act of union - because part of UK and lost independence
- David Cameron promised he would give Scotland more power
- 18th September 2014 = Referendum. 1314 = Battle of Bannockburn. Year of Commonwealth games in Scotland
- No campaign: Can't assume will get EU membership. Can't assume that can keep the £
5 W's on Scottish referendum
What is a referendum: Public vote or question
When was the referendum to be held?: 18th September 2014
Why this date?: Anniversary of 1314 Battle of Bannockburn (700 yrs after)
Which single yes/no question was on the ballot paper?: Should Scotland be an independent country
Who was eligible to vote in the referendum? Scottish citizens 16+
History of Scottish independence
The campaign for Scottish independence began as soon as the unification of England took place in 1707
1286: When the King of Scotland (Alexander III) died there was a power vacuum. The process of choosing the next ruler of Scotland would lead directly to deadly conflict with England in the Wars of Independence. The English King (Edward II) decides to step in and his English forces invade Scotland and this puts the country under English rule.
1314: In the Battle of Bannockburn, Robert the Bruce and his soldiers defeat the English (featured in the film”Braveheart”!), and Scotland wins back its independence from England.
1707: Scotland agrees to become part of the United Kingdom under the Act of Union (partly as a result of a financial crisis. Some will even claim that the Scots were bribed to sign the Act of Union). It results in a political union between Scotland and England with all political powers moved to London. This ends Scotland’s days as an independent Kingdom with its own parliament and government. However Scotland still retains its own legal system national church (Presbyterian) and universities.
1934: The Scottish National Party (SNP) was formed to campaign for greater political independence from the UK. 1999: A referendum on devolution is held and 74% of Scots vote in favour of greater political freedom. As a result, A Scottish Parliament (called Holyrood in Edinburgh) is created. Holyrood is given wide range policy making powers in areas of education, health care and transport as well as legal powers. However, Westminster still retains political powers on taxation (fiscal policy), energy, & foreign policy in the UK. However, Holyrood receives a treasury grant from the UK government for public spending(10% of UK revenue)
2011: The SNP win a landslide victory and became the first party to form a majority government in Holyrood. Alex Salmond is leader of the SNP and becomes First Minister of Scotland. He proposes a referendum on Scottish independence.
Oct 2012: Alex Salmond and David Cameron sign the Edinburgh Agreement. The UK Government and the Scottish Government agree to work together to ensure that a referendum on Scottish independence can take place.
18th Sept 2014: The date of the referendum where the people of Scotland voted on whether Scotland should become an independent country (45% For; 55% Against)
1286 (Wars of Independence) & 1314 (Battle of Bannockburn) = violent to gain independence to separatism
1934 (SNP), 1999 (A referendum on devolution), 2011 (The SNP win a landslide victory), 18th Sept 2014 (Referendum) = political/peaceful nature to separatism. Political route to achieve independence. Peaceful because working together - Scottish people, Scottish govt. & UK govt.
Nature & consequences of separatism
The NATURE OF SEPARATISM can be divided into two main forms: violent & peaceful:-
Violent consequences can include civil war, & terrorism.
Peaceful consequences can involve holding a referendum to achieve greater political independence (through devolution), establishing and maintaining a separate cultural identity, & passing laws which preserve teaching the language in schools.
How has the nature of separatism changed over time?
Violent -> peaceful. - Because gradual step and UK, Scottish govt. and Scottish people worked together to see what the Scots want.
Should Scotland become an independent country?
The debate over the future of Scotland will rumble on into the next generation. The official campaign for independence was called “Yes Scotland” and was dominated by the SNP. The official campaign against independence was called “Better Together”
reasons 4 separatists pressures(independence)in sc
- Scotland has already been an independent country - Kingdom of Scotland was an independent state until May 1st 1707 when joined in a political union with Kingdom of England to create a United Kingdom of Great Britain, there were widespread protests.
- The Scottish identity will be best expressed through an independent country - Gaelic is a celtic language spoken in Scotland and distinctive cultural history.
- Scotland would get 90% of Brtish North Sea revenue and make Scotland financially viable.
- Scottish govt. would set up an oil fund which could be set aside for beneficial use in the future.
- Scotland has the right to self determination (Scots making decisions for themselves etc.)
- The Scottish electorate would be empowered - make Scotland free by removing "Trident" (UK owned sumarine carrying nuclear missles) from the Frith on the Clyde (Scottish waters).
Arguments against independence
- Could be finanically worse off with independence - highly dependent on revenue from North Sea oil and gas. Volatility of oil prices would affect Scottish budget
- Could result in cuts in public spending - with devolution
- Scotland enjoys a higher public spending per head while in the UK
- Scotland's biggest market is the UK - biggest trading partners. UK independence may create trade barriers
- Sctoland's stronger and more secure as part of the UK - Sctoalnd would of been ruined by the recent finanical crisis if it had not been for the UK.
- Scottish cultural identity is not suppressed by being part of the UK - able to increase the sense of Scottishness (e.g. Scottish studies in school curriciculum)
consequences of separatism
What would have happened in the event of a “yes” vote for independence?
An independent Scotland would retain Queen Elizabeth as head of state. However, Scotland would need to reapply for European Union and NATO membership. In addition, a constitutional settlement would need to be agreed with the UK government. Many issues would need to discussed and negotiated involving weighty issues which may take a long time to resolve.
Issues which a Scottish government would have needed to resolve with the UK government.
- Defence is one - especially since the SNP want rid of Britains nuclear weapons (Trident) based on the Clyde (Scottish waters)
- Scotland would have to take a share of UK's debt and continued to use the pound sterling
- Even after independence is achieved other hurdles need to be clear - European Union and Nato memberships
Final outcome of referendum:
55% of votes against independence. Alex Salmond resigned as leader of SNP and as first minister. Nicola Sturgen has now taken over.
Alex Salmond described the independence referendum as a once –in-a-generation event so it unlikely that there will be other independence referendums in the immediate future. However, in order to swing the vote in favour of the “Better Together” campaign, the UK Govt agreed to a number of alterations to the current powers held by the Scottish Parliament. These were close to what the SNP had requested in the intitial referendum and which they had termed “Devo-max”. (The SNP had originally wanted three parts to the voting slip: Yes to Independence, No to Independence and Devo-Max. Devo-max was removed by the Conservatives).
consequences of separatism:
What increased powers were the Scottish people offered if they voted to remain in the Union (UK)?:
- Set income tax and bands
- Allow 16-17 year olds to vote in Scottish elections
- Be given part share in VAT receipts
- Have control over air passenger duty
What has happened since the "no" vote for independence?
- Continue to form an integral part of the UK - but for Scottish devolution, the process of granting powers from Westminister to the Scottish parliament, it's far from business as usual
- UK parties (Conservatives, Labour, Lib Dems) agree that further devolution powers to Holyroof must take place - if scots rejected independence
- Labour wants to give Holyrood the power to vary income tax by 15p in the pound - but not the power to cut the top tax rate on its own
Case study 2: South Sudan (e.g. of regionalism)
The reasons for South Sudan separatist pressures. (page 96 in s/g for extra notes)
- Borders are long, straight lines drawn on maps by colonian rulers carving up people and villages, creating conflict as it ignores ethnicity and religion
- Independent in 1956 from Ethiopia and war has been going on since
- Gained independence from British Colonian rule
- Different religions- North: Muslims / South: Christians & Animists (following traditional religion)
- Different languages & tradition beliefs: (The Dinkas & The Nuers)
- North = Arabs / South = The Drinkas, The Nuers & Christian
- South Sudan oil rich, but its oil fields are on border with the North and only pipeline runs to the North, making oil dispute a strong possibility
- Produce 80% oil but only receive 50% of wealth - South Sudan could be wealthier if independent
- Neglected South Sudan education, food, water etc.
- Northern based govt. illegally "stole land" and given it to military borders from the North, leaving people as refugees
Consequences of Sudanese separatist pressures
How did the Separatist Pressures manifest themselves?
The South Sudanese struggle for independence could be traced back to tribal rivalries (Cultural differences) in the 15th and 16th Centuries, but the real conflict started after Sudan gained Independence from Egypt in 1956.
- 1st civil war took place in: 1955-1972. Consequences: 1/2 million deaths and 100's of 1000's displaced people
- 2nd civil war took place in: 1983-2005. Consequences: 2 million deaths from war, famine, disease and 4 million displaced. Was Guerilla warfare - fight informally
- War ended in 2005 and was solved with a peace agreement which granted the Southerners with regional autonomy along with guaranteed representation in a national power - strong govt.. Also provided a referendum for Southerners to decide if they want independence
Challenges which face South Sudan as a NIC:
- Poverty: half the pop lives on less than $1 a day
- Improved drinking water: less than 2/3 pop have access
- Immunisation: 10% children fully vaccinated only
- Child birth: only 10$ of deliveries are attended by a skilled practioner
- Less than 15% literate
- Insecure country
- Could be in debt
- Pipeline on North border
S.Sudanese Referendum&Independent State
The South Sudanese Referendum and the move to an Independent State
What is a referendum?
- Public vote or question
What was the outcome of the South Sudan referendum?
- 99% said yes to independence
When did South Sudan become an independent state and what was the general feeling of the population?
- Celebrating and optimistic for the future. 9th July 2011.
Since the elections and independence, South Sudan has become embroiled in a bitter civil war mainly centred around disagreements between different ethnic (tribal) groups. The recent “Guardian” newspaper extract gives some insight:“ More than 2 million people have fled their homes in South Sudan since fighting erupted in December 2013. The conflict was sparked by a long-standing enmity between South Sudan President Salva Kiir, from the country’s largest Dinka ethnic group, and his former deputy turned rebel leader Riek Machar, a Nuer, which quickly spread from the streets of Juba into an increasingly tribal conflict. Around 200,000 South Sudanese have fled to Gambella – a remote rural region in western Ethiopia. In a war that has been marked by unprecedented levels of sexual violence, largely against children, Nyadel is willing to sacrifice her 18-year-old son to avenge what she considers the extermination of their people. “Death is normal. I’ll die. He will die. All of us do not need to be here and he can contribute,”
Look at page 87 for the basques optional case study 3