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Geography revision
Contemporary conflicts and challenges…read more

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A state of discord/ disagreement caused by the actual/ perceived opposition of needs,
values and interests between people.
Expression of conflict: Non-violent
Does not involve force or armed struggle. i.e. word, sign, marching, silent protest, art
A task/ issue that is perceived as being provocative, threatening, stimulating or an
incitement to debate…read more

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Causes of conflict
The sense of belonging to a group or area where there is the same generic character or personality.
Nationalism: Loyalty/devotion to a nation which shares the same language, history, culture, common ethnicity/race. Conflicts occur when nations
generate separatist movements and demand their own sovereign govt. Many recent ones have their origins in national identities and the desire for ind.
E.G Basques in Spain, the Tamils in Sri Lanka.
Regionalism: consciousness of/loyalty to a nation or region with a pop. that shares interests. Involves a common sense of history, geography and
culture. I.e. Cornwall, being on a peninsula, dialect, relative isolation from rest of England, celtic traditions all cause Cornwall to have a separate
Localism: an affection for a particular place. Mainly in a political sense. NIMBYISM (not in my back yard)- small scale (village) e.g. wind turbines,
greenbelt land dev.
The grouping of people based on their ethnic origins or characteristics.
The customary beliefs, social norms and traits of a racial, religious or social group & a set of shared attitudes, values and practices that characterise
that group.
A geographical area belonging to a governmental authority. Can occur where there is a low level of population or where boarders depend on the
landscape/ topography. The conflict btwn Palestinians and Israelis stems from territorial claims on Israel. After 60yrs the conflict has not been
A theory/ set of beliefs/ principles on human life/culture that a political system is based upon. Can result in a set of theories/aims that together
create a socio-political programme. Some ideologies can be extreme. I.E. the clash between communists and democracy. Between 1945 and the early
1990s lef to the cold wae between USA and Russia. Produced an armed stand off + an arms race for nuclear weapons. Collapse of communism in Russia
ended the cold war.
This is conflict over resources such as water, jewels etc. Civil war in Sudan killed an estimated 2.5m people, this only ended in 2011 when S. Sudan
became an ind. state. The conflict was about controlling the diamonds, oil, gold and timber. As well as cultural and ethnic differences between the…read more

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Patterns of conflict
Where conflict involves the participation of more than one country
Where conflict takes place within a country
Where conflict takes place within an area of one country/across the boarders of one(or more)
countries. The most serious regional conflict would be a civil war. I.E. Sudan. These often
polarise due to ethnic and racial differences.
Where conflict is restricted to a small part of one region of a country. Usually confined to small
communities and self-interest groups. I.E. The route between Longon and Birmingham of
proposed high speed two rail. Strongest in the Chilterns. General objections relate to the cost
of the rail (£30bn) as well as the env impact. Residents may also see the value of their homes
decrease. This is a NIMBY group.…read more

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Conflict resolution
Negotiation / legal treaty that formally recognises the end to the conflict
Partition E.G. Ireland
Military defeat of one party E.G. Tamil Tigers in the Sri Lankan civil war `09
Internal collapse of government and its political structures E.G. Tunisia and Egypt `11
The policing of a region by a neutral third party E.G. UN on the Ivory Coast
Decisions made by central and local government followed by a debate on local issues. These
are often subject to appeal and independent inquiries. May be influenced by elections/
lobbying of MPs
Devolution of power to regional bodies E.G. creation of the Scottish Parliament
Creation of an overarching international body I.E. the UN able to function as a mediator in
disputes & dedicated to peace.…read more

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Conflict over the use of Local resources
Donald Trump applied to Aberdeenshire County Council for permission to develop a £750m golf resort
at Foveran. The sands are a set of fixed and mobile sand dunes & marshes that are protected as a
Site of Special Scientific Interest and has National Nature Reserve status due to the large abundance
of organisms there.
Trumps plan met outrage and local residents were strongly opposed to the idea for social and
environmental reasons. In Nov `07 the plan was rejected however the Scottish govt. ordered a public
enquiry and a "called-in" the plan.
Opposition came from the Scottish Wildlife Trust, RSPB, WWF & Botanical Society of the British Isles.
They argued that dev would destroy a large part of the dunes which would destroy the env.
Local residents set up a protest group called "Tripping up Trump". Some believed they'd lose their
homes and farms, also changing the character of the area & it's heritage.
At the Pubic Enquiry, Scotlands first minister/local businesses/ tourism agencies all supported it. The
Trump org submitted evidence of positive ec impacts, estimating around 2,000 full time jobs, with
6,000 across Scotland bringing in £40m/yr into the local ec.
The 4mnth public enquiry ended in Oct `08 and a month later the Scottish govt approved the scheme
thinking the ec benefits outweighed the env effects.
Strict conditions were imposed to minimise env effects. Several local residents refused to sell their
homes despite threats of compulsory purchase from the Scottish govt.
Work started in July '10. Plans to build a hotel and hundreds of homes still awaited the approval of
local councillors in the summer of 2011. It should be completed in 2012…read more

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Aidan ****


Amazing. Sums up everything. Thanks!

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