- November 1958: Krushchev demands 6 month ultimation. US troops have 6 months to leave Berlin. Because refugee problem was propaganda disaster for him. Is persuaded by Eisenhower to drop it.
- May 1959: Geneva meeting brings no agreements. Camp David brings no agreement.
- 1960: Paris conference with Kennedy and Krushchev. Krushchev storms out because US U2 plane shot down.
- 1961: Geneva meeting. Krushchev challenges Kennedy to obey 6 month ultimation or start war.
- Night 12 August 1961: East German troops set up barbed wire fence around West Berlin. In coming months replaced by wall.
- Stopped East Germans going to West so stopped refugee crisis.
- Avoided war with America but Soviet Union still seemed strong. (USSR couldn't win nucleur war.)
- Became powerful symbol of division and the Cold War.
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Cuban Missile Crisis
- 1959: Cuban revolution overthrew pro-American government. Castro becomes leader. Cuba turns to USSR for economic support.
- April 1961: Bay of Pigs invaded by CIA trained and equipped Cuban refugees. Defeated within 2 days. People supported Castro.
- 16 October: Kennedy informed that Krushchev plans to place nuclear missiles on Cuba.
- 20-21 October: Imposes naval blockade around Cuba.
- 23 October: Khrushchev sends letter to Kennedy saying ships will break through blockade.
- 24 October: Khrushchev says USSR is prepared to launch missiles if USA starts war.
- 25 October: USA/USSR forces on highest level of alert. Kennedy writes to Khrushchev asking to withdraw missiles from Cuba.
- 26 October: Krushchev replies he will remove cuban missiles if USA guarantees not to invade Cuba.
- 27 October: Krushchev receives intelligence that USA is planning to invade Cuba in 24 hours. Says USSR will withdraw missiles if USA never invades Cuba and withdraws missiles from Turkey.
- Robert Kennedy accepts deal with Russian ambassador but demands Turkey kept secret.
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- US removal of missiles kept secret. People believed Krushchev had backed down.
- By 1965 both superpowers were equal in nuclar capability.
- French left NATO in 1966 and began developing own nuclar missiles.
- 1963: Superpowers introduced hotline which provided direct communication.
- 1963: Limited Test Ban Treaty banned nuclear weapon testing in space, sea and above ground.
- Kennedy said superpowers needed to focus of 'common interests'.
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- Czechoslovakia was a satellite state to USSR. Communism gave people little benefits, run by secret police. Political repression and economic problems made Novotny (leader) unpopular.
- January 1968: Dubcek became leader. Wanted to create "socialism with a human face". Reforms included relaxing of press censorship, legalisation of opposition, toleration of political critisicm.
- April-July: Brezhnev tried to persuade Dubcek to stop.
- August: Soviet media portray Czechoslovakia as threat to USSR.
- Breshnev Doctrine said USSR could invade any country in Eastern Europe whose actions threatened the security of the whole block.
- 20 August 1968: Soviet tanks invaded. Dubcek ordered people not to respond with violence but there was non-violent disobedience.
- Dubcek arrested, taken to Moscow to sign Moscow Protocol which would 'protect socialism' by reintroducing censorship and removing political opposition.
- America was fighting in Vietnam. Johnson had unspoken deal with Brezhnev that USA would not intervene in Czechoslovakia if USSR did not intervene in Vietnam.
- Western Europe followed America's lead. Condemned invasion but no military support.
- Some countries in Eastern Bloc formed alliance with China (other major communist power).
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