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Berlin 1957 - 1961
Brain Drain ­ intelligent people leave E. Berlin
for W. Berlin ­ economic slump ­ no workers ­
unmotivated.
Leaving for: money, quality of life
refugee problem ­ communists becoming capitalist
TENSION
US propaganda ­ advertise capitalism
1958 ­ 6 month ultimatum ­ whole of Berlin
belongs to E. Germany - US troops leave W.
Berlin…read more

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Eisenhower's Summits
1959 ­ Geneva ­
USA and USSR representatives, no solution, leaders meet
next time.
1959 ­ Camp David ­
Khrushchev and Eisenhower, Khrushchev withdraws deadline
1960 ­ Paris ­
K (Khrushchev) and E, U2 spy plane shot down over USSR =
E refuses to apologise ­ K walks out
1961 ­ Vienna ­
K and Kennedy, K though Kennedy was inexperienced, 6
month ultimatum back on,
Kennedy doesn't back down, prepares America for war =
stalemate:
$3.2bn ­ defence spending
$207m ­ nuclear fallout shelters.…read more

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Berlin Wall ­ 12.08.61
secret barbed wire fence overnight ­ around W. Berlin
Later reinforced with a concrete wall
Refugee crisis solved
Causes Events Consequences
Failed summits Secret, overnight US reaction = anger
Refugee crisis Barbed wire, then concrete Iron curtain ­ reality
American Propaganda Heavily Guarded Refugee crisis solved
West Berlin = spy base Kennedy's freedom
speech
Kennedy's election America looked good
Brain Drain
E. Poor living standards…read more

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Cuba ( 1959 ­ 66)
USA = within range of Cuban short-range
missiles
1959 ­ Fidel Castro overthrows pro-US government,
wants independence from US
Cuba turns to USSR, K gives aid (wants close ally to
US)
1961 ­ Bay of Pigs incident
US trained Cuban refugees ­ assassinate Castro,
start revolution as they believed government was
unpopular
But, Cuban people fought for the government ­
defeated force in 2 days…read more

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The Thirteen Days
1. Kennedy informed of plans to build missiles
5. Imposes a naval blockade to prevent missile delivery
7. Address given declaring blockade calls on K to recall
ships
8. K sends letter to JFK ­ soviet ships will break through
9. K ­ USSR prepared to launch nuclear weapons if US
starts war
10. Highest alert ­ prepare for war ­ JFK writes to ask to
withdraw missiles
11. Will withdraw, if not invade Cuba; receives Intel of
planned invasion in 24hrs, will withdraw if turkey missiles
are removed
12. US spy plane shot down over Cuba, hawks demand…read more

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