Muscular involvement continuum
Gross - Fine
Precision of movement
Gross skill - involves large muscle movements with little concern for precision.
e.g running, swimming, hammer throwing.
Fine skill - involves intricate movements using small muscle groups. Involves accuracy and emphasise hand - eye co-ordination.
e.g wrist/finger action of a spin bowler in cricket.
Enviromental influence continuum
Open - Close
How enviromental conditions affect the movement skill. Takes into account all the factors in the surrondings where the activity takes place. e.g team mates, opponents, playing surface.
Open skill - involves movement skills that are affected by the enviroment. Predominantly preceptual and involve decision making. Movements adapted to suit enviroments. e.g pass in rugby or netball.
Closed skill - not affected by the enviroment. Set the same technical model at each performance. Usually self paced. e.g tennis serve, gymnastics through vault.
Discrete - Serial - Continuous
How clearly defined the beginning and end of the movement skill are.
Discrete - clear beginning and end. To repeat the skill it must be repeated.
e.g catching a ball, penalty in hockey/rugby
Serial - number of discrete elements put into a sequence.
e.g gymnastics or trampolining sequence and a triple jump.
Continuous - no definite beginning or end. The movement is repeated continously.
e.g running, cycling, swimming.
Simple - Complex
How complex the movement skill is, determined using four aspects.
1. Perceptual load - what to take in to make a decision.
2. Time available to carry out the perceptual and decison making.
3. Quantity of sub-routines together with their speed and timing.
4. Use of feedback.
Simple skills- little information to process, few decisions to make, small number of sub-routines, use of feed back is not significant.
Complex skills- high preceptual load leading to many decisions, skills will have many sub-routines, use of feedback.
Self paced - Externally paced
Level of control the performer has over the timing of the movement skill.
Self paced - the performer determines when the skill starts and the rate. Usually a closed skill.
e.g high jump, tennis serve.
Externally paced - control of the movement is not determined by the performer but by the enviroment. Involves opponents whom the performer reacts to. Usually open skill.
e.g receiving a pass in football/ hockey.
Low - High
How closely linked the sub-routines of the movement skill are.
Low organisation - made of sub-routines that are easily seperated and practiced by themselves and can be put back together into the skill easily.
e.g swimming strokes, trampolining/gymnastics sequences.
High oraganisation - sub-routines are closely linked together and very difficulty to seperate without disrupting the skill. Skills practiced as a whole.
e.g cartwheels, golf swing.