An imaginary scale between two extremes which shows a gradual increase/decrease in a number of characteristics.
The amount of information that the performer has to process.
Movement skills are usually comprised of several parts that are reffered to as sub-routines.
e.g. Breast Stroke consists of the following:
- Body Position
- Arm Action
- Leg Action
These sub-routines together make up the movement skill.
Analysing a skill using the classification system to gain an understanding of how that skill needs to be taught.
A movement skill that has a number of discrete elements which are put together in a definite order to make a movement or sequences
E.G. Trampoline sequence and Triple Jump
The process of one skill helping the learning and performance of a seperate but similar skill.
The awareness of the relative position of the limbs and joints in space and the state of contraction of the muscles
The whole method of practice is when the skill is learned in its complete form.
Short and fast Skills
Usually involves the processing of information, making decisions and putting these decisions into action. These actions are usually movements.
The process of picking out and focusing on the relevant parts of hte display. This filtering out is also important because irrelevant information is ignored.
Is when the performer h as already perfected the skill being learned but skill carries on practising. This extra time can strengthen motor programmes and schema.
A schema is a store of information in the long term memory that updates and modifies programmes.
e.g. information about the environment and kinaesthetic feedback.
Information that standsa out from the background and to which the performer pays attention
The sense that allows us to know what position our body is in, what our muscles and joints are doing and to feel things involved in our performance
- The ball
- Hockey Stick
Proprioception consits of:
The process which involves the interpretation of information
A series of movements stored in the long-term memory. They specify the movements the skill consists of and the order they occur. They can be retrieved by one decision.
The information recieved by the performer during the course of the movement and as a result of it.
Information in a coded form
Different peices of information are put together are remembered as one peice of information.
The time between the onset of the stimulus and the start of the movement in response to it
The time it takes from starting the movement to completing it
The time from the onset of the stimulus to the completeion of the movement.
Repsonse Time = Reaction Time + Movement Time
This is a picturing of the performance in the mind and does not involve physical movement. It consists of mental imgery, viewing videos of the perforamnce, reading or listening to instructions.
A generalised series or pattern of movements stored in long-term memory
Order of importance.
e.g. the EMP is more important than the sub-routines
Sub-routines are often performed in a set order.
Grooved and overlearned
This m eans the motor programme has been well learned and is stored in long-term memory. A response can now be made automatically and the performer will be at the autonomous stage of learning
Open loop control
A system of subconscious control that does not use or reference feedback
Is the executive motor programme (EMP)
Is information take from the environment concerning performance.
Is the process that causes behaviour or an action to reoccur
Is a loss of motivation
Refers to a target set by a teacher or coach. The effects of feedback are enhanced by goal setting.
Adaptations of movement that will transfer to influence the performance and learning of other skills
Transfer of learning is the influence of one skill on the learning and performance of another skill.
Is the drive to learn and perform well. It is described as the direction and intensity of behaviour.
Is the degree of physiological and psychological rediness or activation. This varies on a contiuum from deep sleep to intense excititement.
The behaviour or responce that is most likely to be given by the performer.
The area in the environement of which the performer is aware.
Focusing attention onto the relevant environmental cues
A condition of nervousness and panic. Often accompanied by extreme anxiety.
The process of focusing on the most important information or cues from the environmental display.
Inhibition is mental fatigue or boredom that will cause performance to deteriorate.
S-R Learning Bond
An S-R learning bond is the connection or link that is made between a stimulus and the response made to this stimulus.
Can be badges, medals and certificates.
Can be praise from the coach, peers or parents. Both are sources of external motivation.
Is the conscious act of remembering a skill or movement experience
Means while patterning or wholeness of form.
Are mental processes that help with problem solving.
Refers to problem solving that incoroprates the use of perception, intelligence and previous experience.
Means that its effects are maximised and have a full influence on the learning and performance of movement skills
Identical Elements Theory
This theory states that the greater the number of components of practice that are relevant to the real situation it is more likely that positive transfer will take place.