Acquiring Movements Skills

  • Classification if motor skills and abilites (devolping an awareness of factors affecting involvement in physical activity)
  • The devolpment of motor skills and the use of practice methods & Information processing during the performance of skills in physical activity
  • Motor control of skills and its impact upon devolping effectiveness in physical activity
  • Learning skills in physical activity
  • Therories relating to the learning of movement skills and the reinforcement of movement skill learning and behaviours associated with a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
  • Transfer of learning to develop effectiveness in physical activity
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Continuum (pl.continua)

An imaginary scale between two extremes which shows a gradual increase/decrease in a number of characteristics.

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Perceptual Load

The amount of information that the performer has to process.

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Sub-Routine

Movement skills are usually comprised of several parts that are reffered to as sub-routines.

e.g. Breast Stroke consists of the following:

  • Body Position
  • Arm Action
  • Leg Action
  • Breathing

These sub-routines together make up the movement skill.

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Task Analysis

Analysing a skill using the classification system to gain an understanding of how that skill needs to be taught.

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Serial Skill

A movement skill that has a number of discrete elements which are put together in a definite order to make a movement or sequences

E.G. Trampoline sequence and Triple Jump

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Positive Transfer

The process of one skill helping the learning and performance of a seperate but similar skill.

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Kinaesthesis

The awareness of the relative position of the limbs and joints in space and the state of contraction of the muscles

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Whole Practice

The whole method of practice is when the skill is learned in its complete form.

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Ballistic Skills

Short and fast Skills

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Psychomotor abilities

Usually involves the processing of information, making decisions and putting these decisions into action. These actions are usually movements.

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Selective Attention

The process of picking out and focusing on the relevant parts of hte display. This filtering out is also important because irrelevant information is ignored.

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Overlearning

Is when the performer h as already perfected the skill being learned but skill carries on practising. This extra time can strengthen motor programmes and schema.

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Schema

A schema is a store of information in the long term memory that updates and modifies programmes.

e.g. information about the environment and kinaesthetic feedback.

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Stiumulus

Information that standsa out from the background and to which the performer pays attention

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Proprioception

The sense that allows us to know what position our body is in, what our muscles and joints are doing and to feel things involved in our performance

e.g.

  • The ball
  • Hockey Stick

Proprioception consits of:

  • Touch
  • Kinaesthesis
  • Equilibrium
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Perception

The process which involves the interpretation of information

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Motor Programme

A series of movements stored in the long-term memory. They specify the movements the skill consists of and the order they occur. They can be retrieved by one decision.

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Feedback

The information recieved by the performer during the course of the movement and as a result of it.

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Encoded

Information in a coded form

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Chunking

Different peices of information are put together are remembered as one peice of information.

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Reaction Time

The time between the onset of the stimulus and the start of the movement in response to it

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Movement Time

The time it takes from starting the movement to completing it

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Response Time

The time from the onset of the stimulus to the completeion of the movement.

Repsonse Time = Reaction Time + Movement Time

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Mental Rehearsal

This is a picturing of the performance in the mind and does not involve physical movement. It consists of mental imgery, viewing videos of the perforamnce, reading or listening to instructions.

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Motor Programme

A generalised series or pattern of movements stored in long-term memory

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Hierachical

Order of importance.

e.g. the EMP is more important than the sub-routines

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Sequential

Sub-routines are often performed in a set order.

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Grooved and overlearned

This m eans the motor programme has been well learned and is stored in long-term memory. A response can now be made automatically and the performer will be at the autonomous stage of learning

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Open loop control

A system of subconscious control that does not use or reference feedback

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Memory Trace

Is the executive motor programme (EMP)

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External Feedback

Is information take from the environment concerning performance.

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Reinforcement

Is the process that causes behaviour or an action to reoccur

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Drive Reduction

Is a loss of motivation

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Goal Setting

Refers to a target set by a teacher or coach. The effects of feedback are enhanced by goal setting.

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Generalised Movement

Adaptations of movement that will transfer to influence the performance and learning of other skills

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Transfer

Transfer of learning is the influence of one skill on the learning and performance of another skill.

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Motivation

Is the drive to learn and perform well. It is described as the direction and intensity of behaviour.

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Arousal

Is the degree of physiological and psychological rediness or activation. This varies on a contiuum from deep sleep to intense excititement.

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Dominant Response

The behaviour or responce that is most likely to be given by the performer.

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Attention Field

The area in the environement of which the performer is aware.

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Concentration

Focusing attention onto the relevant environmental cues

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Hypervigilance

A condition of nervousness and panic. Often accompanied by extreme anxiety.

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Cute Utilisation

The process of focusing on the most important information or cues from the environmental display.

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Inhibitation

Inhibition is mental fatigue or boredom that will cause performance to deteriorate.

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S-R Learning Bond

An S-R learning bond is the connection or link that is made between a stimulus and the response made to this stimulus.

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Tangible Rewards

Can be badges, medals and certificates.

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Intangible rewards

Can be praise from the coach, peers or parents. Both are sources of external motivation.

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Reminiscence

Is the conscious act of remembering a skill or movement experience

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Gestalt

Means while patterning or wholeness of form.

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Intervening variables

Are mental processes that help with problem solving.

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Insight learning

Refers to problem solving that incoroprates the use of perception, intelligence and previous experience.

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Optimising Transfer

Means that its effects are maximised and have a full influence on the learning and performance of movement skills

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Identical Elements Theory

This theory states that the greater the number of components of practice that are relevant to the real situation it is more likely that positive transfer will take place.

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Comments

Katie

key words, good to print out for flashcards

NoirRose

Good Definitions - These will help :)

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