Class differences in achievment

Cultural Deprivation

Intellectual Stimulation: MC parents more liekly to buy toys that improve cogntive ability, so WC already at a disadvantage Language: Bernstein

  • Elaborated speech code: MC use this, long sentences, articulate, exploratory
  • Restricted speech code: WC use this, short sentences, guestures, coloquialism

Parents education: Fernstein

  • Use of income
  • Parenting style: MC discipline and high exectations, WC no discipline and low motivation 

Working-class subculture

  • Immidiate gratification
  • Matalism 
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Material deprivation

Poor housing: leads to overcrowding, noise, poor conditions that mean children cannot study and sleep poorly

Poor diet: leads to sickness and time off school, meaning they can miss vital classes in the early stages of their education

Financial cost of education: WC families can afford less eductaional opportunities

Cultural Capital theory: Bourdieu (marxist)

  • Cultural capital- attitudes values etc that education enforces is naturally enforced by MC
  • Economic capital- wealth that MC families own
  • Educational capital- MC use greater economic and cultural capital to play to the educations systems interests and obtain educational capital
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School factors

Labelling: Becker- teachers label certain students as bright or not-bright and so teach them differenlty holding different expectations based on their class

Self-fulfilling prophecy: labelling leads to students fulfilling the expectations people make just; they have never been told otherwise (WC pupils are more liekly to be labelled and so more likely to fail)

Streaming: Lacey: seperating the sheep from the goat. Extreme and insitutionalised labelling. The 'bright' children are grouped and taught one way by better teachers (usually teh MC students). 

  • Douglas found IQ of pupils streamed and labelled in lower sets fell over time wheras pupils in higher sets increased

Pupil subculture: pupils form subcultures in response to labelling- pro-school, anti-school

Class identities: habitus (classes way of thinking and acting), nike identities (symbolic capital creates class identitites)

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