Churches

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  • Created by: Zobby
  • Created on: 14-05-16 10:19

Success of Nazi attempts to control churches

+ April 1933 - boycott of Jewish shops
+ Invasion of the Soviet Union
+ More concerned with protecting own beliefs
- Not compatible as ideologies - violence + strength/love + forgiveness
- Church sucession campaign
- Pagan beliefs of German Faith Movement
Protestant
+ Shared ideas - nationalism + anti-Semitism
+ Sponsored Reich Church + joined German Christians ( - )
- Confessional church 
Catholic church
+ Anti-Semitism + stress on family values
+/- Concordat largely ignored but agreement between Catholic church and Nazi regime
- Accused priests of immoral sexual conduct
- 1937 Catholic Bavaria w/ abandoment of swastika's for crosses
- 1941 Bishop Galen's attack on Euthenasia

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WW2 failure for churches and regime?

+ Churches were never fully co-ordinated
- Regime careful not to escalate tensions
- Victories in Blitzkrieg = further church attacks
+ Churches supported attacks on Soviet Union - seen as crusade on 'Godless' Communism
- Both churches sought to preserve independence as opposed to attacks on regime
+ Defeat meant Hitler never able replace Chrisitianity with German Faith Movement
- Few German's joined Pagan movement and those who did kept quiet due to fear of being ostracised by society

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Churches at a glance

  • Shared views - Anti-Semitism/Nationalism - Opposing views - Hate/love/race/forgiveness
  • Protestant church - Reich Church (Nazi) - German Christian's re-wrote gospel/ Confessional church/ harassment of clergy
  • Catholic Church - Support for Boycott/Concordat - not support Nazism/ attacks on clergy - financial/sexual/ Misconduct/ Bishop Galen - Euthenasia/ Catholic Bavaria/ Papal Declaration - With burning grief
  • Both churches - Church secessions campaign/ German Faith Movement/ less religious education/ Compuslory Hitler Youth membership/ Avoidance of opposition - concern with survial/ War - Soviet Union invasion/ continuing faith
  • Collapse of regime - aims not achieved
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Why Nazi rise to power caused issues

- Nazism and churches not compatible as ideologies - hate/violence/strength + love/friendship/forgviveness - BOTH family values/Anti-Communist/degree anti-Semitism
Protestant
+ German christians combining Christianity + Nazism
- Muller as Reich bishop to combine 2 churches failed
- Confessional church - divded however on attacks on regime/did undermine Reich church
Catholic church
+/- Concordat created/ largely ignored by Nazi's w/ priests arrested and harrassed
- 36-37 Attacks on convents and monastries w/ priests being accused immoral sexual conduct + illegal currency dealing
+ Clergy maintained loyalty of communities however
+/- 1937 Catholic Bavaria campaign to remove crucifixes from schools - abandoned due to opposition, re-introduced during war

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Why Concordat made in 1933

  • Many German's Catholic so needed to be won over by regime
  • Catholic traditionally voted Catholic Centre Party not Nazi's (their voters Protestant)
  • Catholic church stronger orgainsation than Protestant's in Germany. Based in Rome - difficult for Nazi's to infiltrate
  • Catholic base also linked to education + youth associations, had own newpapers and charitable organisations
  • Shared some values with Nazism - Anti-Semitism/Anti-Communism + stress on family values
  • Concordat ensured Catholic church would not interfere in political Nazi affairs and reigme would allow church rights of worship + certain religious and legal rights - reassuring Catholics that they were not under threat
  • However Nazi's did not keep to the terms and Catholic clergy were harrassed
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Why Catholic church moved co-op to opposition

Position of co-operation
* Catholic church initially shared Nazi beliefs e.g Anti-Communism, Anti-Semitism, views on family values
* 1933 Concordat 
* Catholic church supported Nuremburg Race Laws preventing Jews marrying Aryans
Position of conflict
* 33-34 attacks on Catholic Trade Unions, newspapers and teachers. NOTLK eliminated Catholic politicians
* 34 Bishop Galen preached sermons criticising Nazi policies
* Many members Catholic clergy arrested for sexual offences and illegal currency dealing
* Catholic newspapers forced to drop word Catholic from title and monastries closed down
* 1937 Papal Encyclial (Declaration from Pope) speaking out against Nazi policies
* 1939 compulsory for young people to join Hitler Youth, clearly affecting Catholic Youth organisations
* Many Catholics opposed idea of war, direct conflict to Nazi ideology

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