Christianity 2A-C

  • Created by: LivGrace
  • Created on: 28-03-19 11:29

God as female- Sally McFague

Metaphors are used when talking about God because God is something beyond humans and so we need metaphors to describe him

God the Father is a metaphor and not the reality

Mothering metaphors in the Bible:

  • Hosea 13:8- "Like a bear robbed of her cubs"
  • Deutrenomy 32:18- "You forget the God who gave you birth"
  • Isaiah 66:13- "As a mother comforts your child"

Todays Issues

  • Interelatedness- We should not treat people and nature as 'things', that can be used without understanding how doing so differs relationships
  • Nuclear Age- New technology knowledge, we are able to prevent all birth from happening
  • Worn out metaphors- Metaohors have been out for so long that we need new ones that relevant to modern times
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God as female

What are male metaphors doing to society?

  • Holding everyone back because it leaves the impression that men are dominant and have discipline because God is God the father
  • Stopping world being equal

We should see God's body as panenthiesm because then we would look after the world as it is God's body

  • God as a mother helps issues
  • Interrelatedness- Will move away from hierachy figure of 'father
  • Nuclear Age- When we see God the father we rely on God to solve the problem, but God the mother means we would
  • Worn out metaphors- 'God the Father' is a metaphor and makes men seem more dominant.
  • Panenthiesm- Because it's God nourishing the world like a child
  • Theism- God is all powerful, loving and knowing
  • Pantheism- God and world are same thing
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Can God suffer- Moltmann

Aristotle's prime mover- Self-dependent/ living/ eternal/ Good God

Qualities of the classical God: Omnipotent/ Omniscient/ Omnibenelovent

Why wear crucifix?- The suffering of Jesus is the heart of the Chritistian faith

Moltmann- 1926- Nazi-Germany, Holocause, WW2

Process theology- God is not omnipotent/ omnipresent/ omniscient but he is omnibenelovent

How does suffering God offer hope?

  • People can relate to him
  • He is with us
  • Doesn't seem far away
  • Crucifixtion- resurrection of christ

Christ called out on the cross- "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?"

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Moltmann's problems with the church

  • Clinging onto an identity which alienated it from the world
  • Becoming relevant to the world in ways that sacrificed any uinique identity

Moltmann's big question

  • Can one be fully engaged with the world, in its struggles and challenges AND have the christian identity?
  • Is it impossible to have relevance and christian identity?

Gods real nature

  • Jesus is part of the trinity
  • The son experiences rejection and the father suffers beneavement
  • When a chritsitan suffers, if they can remember that their suffering and sense of abandonment is at the heart of God, they will have identified with what is central to the christian message
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The Trinity

The son       The Father      Holy Spirit

Noah's ark- Dove (Trinity)

Genesis- "Let us make mankind in our image"

Theologian Stephen Bullivant summarises chrsitian convictions about the nature of God to three basic statments:

  • There is only one God
  • The father, the son and the holy spirit is each God
  • Father, Son and Holy spirit are not the same
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Heresy 1: Tri-Theism

  • Tri-Theism- Denial that there is only 1 God
  • The Gold Analogy- Gregory of Naziarizus- when we speak of Gold, even if its changed into many different things, it still is, and is mentioned as one
  • Bullivant adapts- Gold ring, Gold coin, Gold crucifix- All god but are not the same

Heresy 2: Arianism (Arius)

  • Only the father is God
  • Bullivant- Jesus is pinnochio
  • Pinnochio was created by Gepetto but the isn't equal to him/
  • Jesus is not same substance of the father, 
  • Pinnochio becomes flesh and blood- still creation of Gepetto

Heresy 3: Modalism

  • God takes on characters. God switches identities
  • Bullivant- Modes of Sacha Baron Cohen- the 3 are just masks over one God
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Filioque- 1054 AD

  • Literally means 'and from the son'
  • Falling out with different churches over the trinity
  • Nicene Creed- Last creed that all churched agreed on

Orthodox- God the father is the source of divinity, son and holy spirit come from God

Roman Catholic- The holy spirit comes from the father and the son

Great Schism 6th Century- Split of the orthodox church and roman catholics

Augustine- Holy Spirit is the bond between Father and Son

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Christ the Victor

  • Jesus death on the cross as a victory
  • Victory over evil
  • Evidence- Popular in the medieval era
  • Imagery depicting Jesus descending to hell, breaking its gates and releasing the souls
  • Mark 10:45- 'To serve and give his life as ransom'
  • 1 Timothy- 'Jesus gave his life ransom for money'
  • Gregory the Great- Devil lost its rights over humanity when devil killed Jesus


Humans are liberated from the slavery of sin of Jesus by his incarnation entering human misery and redeeming it


Plays down human sin and guilt and is comfortably triumphalist

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Moral Example

  • People need moral guidance
  • John 3:16- 'God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten son, that whosoever believeth on him not perish, but have eternal life'
  • Cross seen as a sign of Gods love for humanity and call that humanity show love for God
  • Abelberd- Want people to learn
  • Aulen- Speaks to the darker side of human nature and the forces of evil that seem to be at work in the world

Peter Abelberd- Strengths

  • Moral guidance shows God is an omnibenevolent being and calls that we show love for God
  • Lead people to repentance


  • Teaches that human beings can achieve salvation through their own moral effort
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Christ the Substitute

  • Jesus sacrificed himself for our sins
  • God redeems humanity in a way that is totally consistent with God's righteousness
  • God took on human form to take on the sin
  • Incarnation crucifixion solved the problem
  • Anselm- Doesn't like victor model cause thinks make God equal to the devil. God doesn't need to trick the devil


  • We can share Jesus' victory
  • Human debt is greater to God. God paid his debt to us


  • Model rooted in violence. Separates father and sin
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