Chemistry Unit 2

These revision cards are based around 'more about acids and bases'

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What is a H+ ion?

Answer: a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron- in other words it is simply a proton

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What does it mean when we say a proton is hydrated

Answer: it means as we dissolve it in water, it becomes surrounded by water molecules to keep it in solution

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What is an alkali?

Answer: a base that is dissolved in water

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What ions does a base produce when we dissolve it

Answer: it produces OH- ions

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What is another name for an acid?

Answer: a proton donor

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What is another name for an alkali? Why?

Answer: a proton acceptor because the hydroxiide ions from an alkali combine readily with protons (H+ ions) to form water

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Give 3 examples of strong acids

Answer: Hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric

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Give 2 examples of strong alkalis

Answer: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide

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Give 1 example of a weak acid

Answer: any from- ethanoic, citric, carbonic

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Give 1 example of a weak alkali

Answer: ammonia solution

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What are the two main ways of telling if an acid i

Answer: 1. Measuring the PH of a strong and a weak, and the strong acid will have a lower PH

 2. By Observing the rate of reaction when we add a reactive metal to the acid

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What happens when we add an acid solution to an al

Answer: it produces, a neutralisation solution

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What is the process called in which we can measure

Answer: titration

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In titrations, what is the point called at which t

Answer: the end point

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What indicator should we use if we react a strong

Answer: any indicator is suitable as it is neutral

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What indicator should we use when we react a weak

Answer: phenolphthalein

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What indicator should we use when we react a stron

Answer: methyl orange

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What are the two calculations we use to work out t

Answer: 1. mass/ relative formula mass

 2. concetration x (volume / 100)

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How do we describe the concentration of a solute i

Answer: in terms of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one cubic decimetre of solution

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What is the unit for this?

Answer: moles per cubic decimetre OR mol/dm3

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What is the formula for working out titrations?

Answer: M1 V1 / N1 = M2 V2 / N2

M= concentration, V= volume, N= number of moles

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What were Lavoisier's ideas?

Answer: that part of the air was responsible for the behaviour of acids. He called this gas 'oxygen' from the Greek meaning 'acid-forming'

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What did Sir Humphry Davy conclude after finding o

Answer: that hydrogen, rather than oxygen, is the important element in acids

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Who first suggested the truly scientific definitio

Answer: Svante Arrhenius

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What else did Arhenius suggest?

Answer: that when acids, bases and salts dissolve in water they separate either partly or completely into charged particles called ions. This is a process called dissociation. 

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Another thing Arrhenius suggested?

Answer: that the similarities between acids were due to the hydrogen ions they produce when dissolved in water. This is the same for bases too

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What did Lowry and Bronsted suggest?

Answer: that acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors

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