What is a H+ ion?
Answer: a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron- in other words it is simply a proton
What does it mean when we say a proton is hydrated
Answer: it means as we dissolve it in water, it becomes surrounded by water molecules to keep it in solution
What is an alkali?
Answer: a base that is dissolved in water
What ions does a base produce when we dissolve it
Answer: it produces OH- ions
What is another name for an acid?
Answer: a proton donor
What is another name for an alkali? Why?
Answer: a proton acceptor because the hydroxiide ions from an alkali combine readily with protons (H+ ions) to form water
Give 3 examples of strong acids
Answer: Hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric
Give 2 examples of strong alkalis
Answer: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide
Give 1 example of a weak acid
Answer: any from- ethanoic, citric, carbonic
Give 1 example of a weak alkali
Answer: ammonia solution
What are the two main ways of telling if an acid i
Answer: 1. Measuring the PH of a strong and a weak, and the strong acid will have a lower PH
2. By Observing the rate of reaction when we add a reactive metal to the acid
What happens when we add an acid solution to an al
Answer: it produces, a neutralisation solution
What is the process called in which we can measure
In titrations, what is the point called at which t
Answer: the end point
What indicator should we use if we react a strong
Answer: any indicator is suitable as it is neutral
What indicator should we use when we react a weak
What indicator should we use when we react a stron
Answer: methyl orange
What are the two calculations we use to work out t
Answer: 1. mass/ relative formula mass
2. concetration x (volume / 100)
How do we describe the concentration of a solute i
Answer: in terms of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one cubic decimetre of solution
What is the unit for this?
Answer: moles per cubic decimetre OR mol/dm3
What is the formula for working out titrations?
Answer: M1 V1 / N1 = M2 V2 / N2
M= concentration, V= volume, N= number of moles
What were Lavoisier's ideas?
Answer: that part of the air was responsible for the behaviour of acids. He called this gas 'oxygen' from the Greek meaning 'acid-forming'
What did Sir Humphry Davy conclude after finding o
Answer: that hydrogen, rather than oxygen, is the important element in acids
Who first suggested the truly scientific definitio
Answer: Svante Arrhenius
What else did Arhenius suggest?
Answer: that when acids, bases and salts dissolve in water they separate either partly or completely into charged particles called ions. This is a process called dissociation.
Another thing Arrhenius suggested?
Answer: that the similarities between acids were due to the hydrogen ions they produce when dissolved in water. This is the same for bases too
What did Lowry and Bronsted suggest?
Answer: that acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors