Chemistry 3 - Analysis, Ammonia and organic chemistry

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 07-04-15 14:56

Flame Colours

Many metal compounds give distinctive flame colours, including compounds of:
Lithium - Crimson
Sodium - Yellow
Potassium - Lilac
Calcium - Red
Barium - Green

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Sodium Hydroxide Solution

You can identify some metal ions in solution by adding sodium hydroxide solution.
The precipitates formed have distinctive colours.

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Test for Carbonates, Halides and Sulfates

You can test for:
 Carbonates by adding dilute acid
 Halide ions by adding silver nitrate solution
 Sulfates by adding barium chloride solution

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You can use titrations to measure the volumes of acid and alkaline solutions that react with each other.

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Titration calculations

If you know the concentration of one reactant, you can use titration results to calculate the concentration of the other reactant.

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Raw materials in Haber Process

The raw materials for the Haber process are nitrogen (obtained from the air) and hydrogen (often natural gas).

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Haber Process

In the Haber process, nitrogen and hydrogen react together to form ammonia, NH³, in a reversible reaction.
The  reaction takes pplace at high temperature (450
°C), high pressure (200°C), and in the presence of an iron catalyst.

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Reversible Reaction

When a reversible reaction occurs in a closed system, equilibrium is reached when the reactions occur at the same rate in each direction.

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Conditions of reaction

The relative amounts of the reacting substances at equilibrium depend on the conditions of the reaction.
Changing the temperature or pressure changes the amounts of substances at equilibrium.

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Alcohols have the function group -OH.
They form neutral solutions in water, react with sodium to produce hydrogen, and burn in air.
Ethanol is oxidised to ethanoic acid.
Alcohols are used as fuels, solvents, and in drinks.

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Carbonxylic Acids

Carbonxylic acids have the functional group -COOH.
They form acidic solutions in water, react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide, and react with alcohols to produce esters.
Carbonxylic acids are weak acids they do not ionise completely in water.
Ethanoic acid is the main acid in vinegar.

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Esters have the functional group -COO-.
They are volatile compounds with distinctive smells.
They are used as flavourings and perfumes.

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