Chemistry

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What element do all organic chemicals contain?

-Carbon

Alkanes are made of a chain of what? What elements are they surrounded by?

-Carbon atoms

-Hydrogen

What are the only bonds that alkanes contain?

-Covalent bonds

What ‘visibly’ shows that alkanes are different?

-Length chains of carbon atoms.

What is the formula for all alkanes?

-C(n)H(2n+2)

What does ‘n’ represent?

-The number of carbon atoms in the chain

According to fewest carbon atoms, what are the first 4 alkanes (in order)?

-Methane, Ethan, Propane, Butane.

What is the molecular formula for methane?

-CH4

Use the alkane formula to find out the molecular formula for ethane?

-C(2)H(6)

What are the 3 different ways of showing the layout of alkanes?

-Molecular formula

-Structural formula

-Ball-and-stick representation

Draw a structural formula for ethane?

-

When alkanes burn, what do they produce?

-Carbon dioxide and water

In what conditions do alkanes burn better?

-Surplus of oxygen

What is the scientific name given to the process of burning alkanes?

-Combustion

Write a word equation for the burning (combustion) of alkanes.

-Alkane + Oxygen à Carbon dioxide + Water

Write a balanced symbol equation for the combustion (burning) of ethane. Include state symbols.

-CH(4) (g) +2O(2) (g) à 2H(2)O (l) + CO(2) (g)

What are the 4 state symbols and what do they stand for?

-(l) – Liquid

-(g) – Gas

-(s) – Solid

-(aq) – Aqueous

How inert are alkanes? Why?

-Not very inert

-They don’t react with most chemicals

Name a substance that alkanes do not react with?

-Aqueous reagents (substances dissolved in water)

Why do alkanes not react?

-The C-C bonds and C-H bonds on them are unreactive.

What is the useful thing about knowing the names of alkanes?

-The names of the alkanes inform you about the structure.

What is the functional group for alcohol?

-(-OH)

What is the general formula for an alcohol?

-C(n)H(2n+1)OH

What are the first two alcohols?

-Methanol and ethanol

What is the molecular formula for methanol and ethanol?

-CH(3)OH

-C(3)H(5)OH

Why does the functional group of alcohols mean about their properties?

-They are similar

Why do you write CH(3)OH instead of CH(4)O?

-It doesn’t show the functional group, which determines that it is an alcohol.

Give one difference between ethanol and alkanes.

-Ethanol is soluble in water, alkanes are insoluble in water.

Give one similarity between ethanol and water.

-Ethanol and water are both good solvents.

Compare the boiling points between ethanol and water.

-Ethanol’s boiling point (78°C) is lower than water’s boiling point (100°C)

Compare the boiling points between ethanol and alkanes?

-Ethanol’s boiling point is much higher than alkanes (ethane is -103°C)

What state of matter is ethanol at room temperature?

-Liquid

What physical property/response does ethanol do at room temperature? What term is given to this action?

-Evaporates easily and gives off its fumes.

-Volatile

What is the main difference between ethanol and ‘methane+ethane’, despite both being volatile?

-Methane and ethane are both gases at room temperature; ethanol is liquid.

What are alcohols…

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