# Chemistry 5 - Quantative Chemistry (AS)

- Created by: Alexander Hyde
- Created on: 27-03-22 11:01

## The Mole

**Number of atoms**

The mole is just a name for the number of particles you have.

1 mole = 6.02x10^{23 }particles - This number is known as Avogadro's constant

To work out the number of particles in a substance:

1. calculate the molar mass

2. Calculate the number of moles

3. Multiply by Avogadro's constant

4. If needed, multiply by the number of atoms in the molecule. E.g. H_{2}S has 3 particles so multiply by 3.

**Molar Mass**

The molar mass is exactly the same as Mr and tells you the mass per mole of something. For example, the molar mass of carbon (C) = 12.0g mol^{-1}

## Calculations involving moles

**Number of moles**

Number of moles = Number of particles/Avogadro's constant

**Moles in a solid**

n = m/Mr

n = moles (mol), m = mass (kg), Mr = molar mass (g/mol)

**Moles in a solution**

n = c*v

n = moles (mol), c = concentration (g/cm^3), v = volume (dm^3)

**moles in a gas**

Number of moles = volume/Molar gas volume

## Empirical and Molecular Formulae

**Empirical formulae**

The Empirical formulae gives you the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a formula.

To calculate the empirical formulae:

1. Write down the elements involved

2. write down the masses (or percentages as masses)

3. Divide these by the relative atomic masses

4. Divide by the smallest number of moles

**Molecular formulae**

The molecular formulae gives you the actual ratio of atoms in a formula.

Given the empirical formulae, to calculate the molecular formula of the reaction, work out the Mr of the empirical formula and divide by the Mr of the molecular formula. Use that result to multiply by the number of atoms in the empirical formula.

## Equations

**Balanced equations**

Balanced equations have equal numbers of each atom on each side. To get this, you can put multipliers in front of a chemical.

**Ionic equations**

Ionic equations show you the ions involved in a reaction. Only reacting substances are included.

Given a balanced equation of a reaction, Write out all the ions in the equation and then remove ions which appear on both sides.

**Reaction Stoichiometry**

You can use the ratio to calculate the amount of a substance produced elsewhere in a reaction.

**State symbols**

s = solid, l = liquid, g = gas, aq = aqueous (solution in water)

## Reactions

**Displacement reactions**

A more reactive element replaces a less reactive element in a compound. e.g.

Cl_{2 }+ 2KBr ---> Br_{2} + 2KCl_{2}

**Reactions of acids**

When a base reacts with an acid, a salt and water is produced. e.g.

H_{2}SO_{4} + 2NaOH ---> Na_{2}So_{4 }+ 2H_{2}O

Precipitation reactions

Reaction of two aqueous compounds to form a solid.

## Gas calculations

**The ideal gas equation**

pV = nRT

p = pressure (Pa)

V = Volume (m^{3})

n = Moles (Mol)

R = 8.31 J K^{-1 }mol^{-1}

T = Temperature (K)

## Titration calculations

**Concentrations**

1. Write a balanced equation and write out what you know

2. Work out how many moles of acid you have.

3. Use the molar ratio to calculate how many moles of solution you have

4. Calculate the final concentration of the solution (C = m/v)

## Uncertainty

Uncertainty arises because you cannot be 100% accurate in your measurements. This may simply be due to limitations in the equipment.

**Percentage uncertainty**

%age uncertainty = Uncertainty/reading * 100

**Total uncertainty**

1. Find the percentage uncertainties for each bit of equipment

2. Add them together to give the final uncertainty in the result

3. Calculate the actual uncertainty

## Atom economy

Atom economy is the measure of the efficiency of the reaction.

% atom economy = Mr of desired product/Mr of all products *100

In addition reactions, the atom economy is always 100%

## Percentage yield

The percentage yield is the maximum product you can get if no chemicals are 'lost' in the process.

Percentage yield = actual yield/theoretical yield * 100

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