green chemistry

  • Created by: omer3
  • Created on: 26-05-15 18:15
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  • green chemistry
    • sustainability
      • reduce the need to use finite raw materials such as crude oil
      • use less harmful corrosive reactants
      • designing processes with high atom economy's minimising production of waste materials using catalysts
      • develop ways of using renewable fuels such as plant based substances to make polymers and fuels
      • ensuring that waste products produced are non toxic can be recycled and biodegradable and can be broken down into harmless substances in enviroment
    • Greenhouse effect and global warming
      • greenhouse gas absorbs infared radiation re radiating from the earth
        • carbon dioxide methane and water vapour are all greenhouse gasses they trap earths radiated infared energy in the atmosphere
      • greenhouse effect of a given gas is dependant upon its atmospheric concentration, ability to absorb infared radiation and its residence time meaning time stays in the atmospehre
    • scientists believe the earth is getting warmer due to increasing levels of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide caused by increasing of burning of fossil fuels this is leading toglobal warming
      • global warming could lead to rise in sea levels more extreme weather flooding polar ice melting
        • human contribution to climate change are called anthropogenic
          • natural causes for climate change are volcanic activity and suns activity
        • role in chemists in minimising climate change
          • chemists provide scientific evidence that global warming is taking place such as monitoring atmospheric changes
            • one solution to environmental problems are CCS carbon capture storage one way carbon dioxide can be stored is removal of  waste carbon dioxide is injected in liquid form deep into the ocean, carbon dioxide can also be stored inside geological formations
              • chemists measure progress against initiatives using the Kyoto protocol
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              • chemists can also develop   alternative energy sources such as solar power or fuel cells they could also build more efficient engines for transport and also they can find uses for carbon dioxide for eg dry cleaning decaffienatong coffee
    • carbon neutrality is an activity  where there is no net carbon emissions in the atmospehre
    • a biofuel is a fuel produced from plants
      • ethanol produced from fermentation is a biofuel it can be argued that ethanol produced frm this methiod is carbon neutral as any carbon dioxide given off when the biofuel was burned would have been extracted by photosynthesis when the plant grew
        • this however does not take into account energy needed to fractionally distil ethanol from reaction mixture or process the fuel if the energy for theses processes comes from fossil fuels then this processs is not carbon neutral
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