Chemical Storylines- A2 unit F335 Chemistry by Design

A summary of the Chemical Storyline topics from A2 unit F335 Chemistry by Design

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CS Agriculture and Industry

  • When thinking about how economical industrial processes are, we must consider cost of raw materials, energy costs, cost associated with plant, co-products and by-products and the principles of green chemistry
  • Must also consider benefits to society of the products, hazards involved with the raw materials- explosions, acidic gases, flammable gases and toxic emissions
  • Chemists are trying to provide extra nutrients to the soil by nutrient cycling, using green manures (crops that are ploughed back into the soil) and adding fertilisers (cont. ammonia made from the Haber process)
  • Soil pH is controlled by adding a base (such as limestone, chalk or lime) to raise the pH
  • Crop yield is also increased through the use of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides)
  • They must be specific to the target organism, kill at low dosages so only small amounts need to be applied and must not persist in the environment or travel into the water supply
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CS Colour by Design

  • Dyes attach themselves to fibres using intermolecular bonds, ionic attractions and covalent bonding (depending on the dye)
  • The chromophore is the group of atoms in a dye molecule which is largely responsible for its colour. 
  • Functional groups can be added to the chromophore which
  • - modify or enhance the colour of the dye
  • - make the dye more soluble in water
  • - attach the dye molecules to the fibre of the cloth
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CS The Oceans

  • Attempts are being made to make the oceans into a carbon store by dissolving carbon dioxide in water.
  • High pressures and low temperatures encourage CO2 to dissolve in the oceans, which takes the gas out of the atmosphere and helps maintain a stable environment on Earth 
  • Carbon dioxide is a weak acid, so large concentrations could cause a fall in the pH of the oceans
  • Atmospheric CO2 can also be reduced by more economical use of fuels, use of alternative fuels, capture and storage of CO2 and increased photosynthesis
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CS Medicines by Design

  • Pharmacophore- the fragment of a molecule that binds to the active site of an enzyme. It is this set of structural features in a molecule that interact at a receptor site that is responsible for a molecule's biological activity.
  • Chemists design and make new compounds for use as pharmaceuticals, undertake ethical testing of drugs and apply computer modelling techniques in the design of medicines
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