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Topic 2
Unit F335

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Electronegativity is the ability to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond

Atoms with strong electron pulling power in covalent bonds are said to be highly electronegative.

Fluorine is the most electronegative element.
Oxygen, nitrogen chlorine are also strongly electronegative.

In a covalent bond between two atoms of

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Whether a molecule has a permanent dipole depends on its shape and the polarity of its bonds.

1. In a simple molecule, like hydrogen bromide, the polar bond gives the whole molecule a permanent
dipole ­ it's a polar molecule.

2. A more complicated molecule may have several polar bonds.…

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Intermolecular forces are forces between molecules.
They are much weaker than covalent, ionic or metallic bonds.

Permanent Dipole ­ Permanent Dipole

Permanent dipoles occur when a molecule has two atoms bonded
together which have substantially different electronegativities so
that one atom attracts the shared electrons much more than the

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Oils and fats are naturally occurring triesters of propane-1,2,3-triol and long-chain carboxylic acids.
Each of the three ester groups can be from the same fatty acid or they can be different.

Glycerol Triester

Fatty Acids

Fatty acids are the carboxylic acids in fats and oils.
They have an even number…

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The simplest arene is benzene.
It's chemical formula is C6H6.
It has a flat hexagonal structure with a bond angle of 120O.

Arenes are hydrocarbons that contain benzene rings.
Their names always end in ­ene, meaning that they are unsaturated.

All carbon-carbon bond lengths are the same, with a value…

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The delocalised electrons in a benzene ring are spread out in a cloud which
extends above and below the plane of the benzene ring. Electrophiles
These regions of higher electron density tend to attract more positive are positive
ions, or atoms with a partial positive charge within molecules ­ so…

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Nitration Reaction Sulfonation Reaction

Chlorination Reaction Bromination Reaction

Acylation Reaction

Alkylation Reaction

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Aromatic amines are used to make azo dyes.
Azo dyes contain the azo group ­N=N-.
In azo dyes, the azo group links the two aromatic groups.
Having two aromatic groups creates a very stable molecule.
The azo group becomes part of the delocalised electron system.

The colours are the result…


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