Chemical Coordination

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Glands and Hormones

Glands

  • Hormone that secretes a substance => cells in gland make a substance which passes out of cells
  • Two types of glands: exocrine and endocrine 
  • Exocrine: secrete their products through a tube or duct => salivary glands in mouth produce saliva down salivary ducts
  • Endocrine: have no duct => aka. ductile glands => secrete hormones into blood vessels that pass through the gland
  • Endocrine gland examples: the pituatry gland, the thyroid glaind, the pancreas, the adrenals, the testes, etc.
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All glands and their functions

Glands

  • Pituatry: releases FSH hormone (stimulates egg development), LH (stimulates egg release), ADH (controls water content in blood) and GH (speeds rate of growth and development)
  • Thyroid: releases THYROXIN (controls body's metabolic rate)
  • Pancreas: releases insulin (lowers blood glucose) and glucagon (raises blood glucose)
  • Adrenals: releases adrenaline (prepares body for physical activity)
  • Testes: releases testosterone (controls development of secondary sex characteristics)
  • Ovaries: releases oestrogen (controls development of female secondary sex characteristics) and progesterone (regulates menstrual cycles)
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How adrenaline affects the body

  • Breathing rate increases and breaths become deeper = takes more oxygen into the body
  • Heart beats go faster = sends more blood to muscles = helps receive glucose for respiration
  • Blood is diverted away from the intestine and into the muscles
  • Pupils dialite = increases visual sensitivity for movement
  • Mental awareness is increased = reactions are faster
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