The Impact on the Reformation on Church and State

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 07-04-14 14:28
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  • The Impact of the Reformation on Church + State 1535-41
    • Further reforms of Church
      • Betw/1536 + 1539 looked as though H moving towards Protestant/ Lutheran theology
      • King's Supremacy 1534 important doctrinal change. Meant E broken away from Papal control + not part of Catholic Church
      • Ten Articles 1536 passed through Convocation by bishops, limited moves towards Lutheran ideas
      • King + Cromwell interested in possible alliance w/Lutheran Princes in Ger. These articles not officially approved by King or Parliament
      • Christ's body = present during ceremony of mass, either Catholic or Lutheran
      • Catholics liked transubstantiation, Lutheran claimed body + bread co-existed - Consubstantiation
      • Salvation through faith + charity, not Lutheran where it from faith alone. So more like Catholic doctrine
      • Three of Catholic Church's Seven Sacraments (Eucharist,Baptism + Penance) were discussed, others not mentioned
      • Bishop's Book 1537 (officially Institution of a Christian Man).Drawn up by a committee of bishops to fill in gaps left in Ten Articles
        • Fierce debate betw/conservative +reforming bishops. H didn't give approval, when he did review it, he sent Cranmer 250 changes
      • Fierce debate betw/conservative +reforming bishops. H didn't give approval, when he did review it, he sent Cranmer 250 changes
      • Four lost sacraments (Marriage,Ordination, Confirmation + Extreme Unction) rediscovered but less important
      • Faith was seen as more important than good works for salvation
      • H's corrections mainly to ensure good works = necessary for salvation
      • Cromwell's Injunctions 1536, Cromwell = Viceregent in Spirituals (King's deputy in Church affairs)
      • Clergy were to educate children in basics of Christian beliefs, preach in favour of Supremacy + Ten Articles
      • Number of Holy Days (holidays) reduced
      • Cromwell's Injunctions 1538, religious images, which were object of pilgrimage, should be taken down
      • Candles in front of images were forbidden, sermons preached against relics etc
      • English Bible, both sets of Injunctions urged intro of English Bibles in parish Churches, by 1547 most had them, though access= limited
      • Protestants always insisted vernacular Bible crucial to true religion
      • Catholics not against English Bible in principle, but in practice, though would lead to heresy + disagreements
    • English Bible = major step towards Protestant theology
    • Impact of reformation on state finances + foreign policy
      • Reformation did make Crown wealthy in short term
      • Crown took charge of all payments which had previously gone to Rome
      • Crown acquired huge wealth in land etc from dissolution
      • But most land etc sold for short-term gain, not invested to improve royal income
      • Meant England now subject to possible invasion by France + Emperor
      • Whole coastline other side of Channel = hostile now
      • At PoG time, fears of papally inspired crusade to be launched to link w/rebels
      • Feared h would be overthrown + Reginald Pole (Yorkist) would marry Mary, ruling w/her
      • 1538 Charles V + Francis I made peace w/Pope, declare War on all schismatics (heretics), real fear of joint invasion of E, need to strengthen coastal defenses
    • Reformation on hold 1538-47
      • After 1538, H changed direction, establish Church which was politically Protestant but religiously Catholic
      • 1538 John Lambert burnt @ stake, he agreed w/Zwingli etc that there = no transubstantiation
      • 1539 Act of Six Articles, more authority than Ten Articles as act of Parliament not Convocation, enshrined Catholics beliefs
        • Transub. entirely body of Chirst
          • Communion in both kinds, bread + wine for clergy, laity only bread
        • Clerical celibacy, no marriage for clergy, protestants allowed clergy to marry
      • Vows of chastity = important
      • Masses for dead = important
      • Auricular confession = necessary
    • Failure of Cleves Marriage
      • Cromwell's attempts to link England to Schmalkaldic League of Protestant princes in Ger. went wrong, marriage annulled
      • Instead H married C Howard, niece of leading conervative, Duke of Norfolk
    • 1540 Overthrow of Cromwell
      • Cromwell had been King's chief adviser + was in favour of reform. he was dismissed + executed for treason
      • Without him reforming party v. weak + conservatives led by Norfolk + Gardiner = stronger


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