Give an example of an area that is affected by coa
- The average rate of erosion is about 1.8 m per year at Holderness
This is due to:
- Easily eroded rock type, boulder clay, which can also slump when wet.
- Naturally narrow beaches which means less natural defence against sea
- Groynes further up the coast limit material supply, narrowing beaches further.
- Powerful waves due to coast facing the prevailing wind
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What are the impacts of the Coastal Erosion here?
IMPACTS ON PEOPLE
- Homes near cliff are at risk of collapsing into the sea
- Property prices fall
- Accessability affected
- Businesses are lost and people lose jobs
- Gas terminal close by is at risk and could cut supply
- 80,000 square metres of farmland lost each year
- Some SSSIs are threatened e.g. the Lagoons near Easington could be lost if bar is eroded.
- Natural habitats are lost
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Give an example of an area affected or theatened b
- Population of 300,000
- Average island height only 1.5m above sea leavel, with 80% below 1m.
- Economic - Loss of tourism (the largest industry) and disruption to fishing industry (the largest export)
- Social - Homes damaged or destroyed and low fresh water supplies
- Environmental - Loss of beaches and soil
- Political - Government has been changing policies and plans and asked for $60 million to build a sea wall.
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Give an example of an area that uses coastal manag
- Bridlington is protected by a 4.7km sea wall and wooden groynes
- Hornsea has groynes, sea wall and rock armour
- Mappleton has two rock groynes
- Withernsea has groynes, a sea wall and rock armour.
- Spurn Head Spit is protected by groynes and rock armour.
- Groynes starve beaches further down the coast putting them more at risk
- Reducing the amount of eroded material, increases the risk of flooding at Humber estuary
- This is the same for the Lincolnshire coast
- Spurn Head could be eroded away because less material is being added.
- Maintaining the defences is expensive.
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Give an example of a salt marsh and describe the m
KEYHAVEN MARSHES, HAMPSHIRE
- The salt marsh is retreating by up to 6m a year
- The salt marsh could be under threat if Hurst Castle spit is breached in storms etc.
- Increasing demands for leisure and tourism have meant more visitors. Careful management is required to prevent damage by trampling, parking and pollution.
- In 1996, rock armour and beach nourishment were used to increase the spit therefore protecting the marshes.
- The area is an SSSI therefore is carefully managed and monitored
- Sea levels are expected to rise and this could be dangerous for the marshes
- Sea lavender
- Oystercatcher (bird)
- Common blue (butterfly)
- Wold Spider
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