Coasts

Summarised notes on coastal management and processes for AQA GCSE

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  • Created by: Imogen52
  • Created on: 18-04-10 16:05
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COASTS
The coast is a narrow contact zone between the land and sea.
Waves
Created when wind blow over the surface of sea causing friction.
Size and energy of wave varies according to it's speed and amount of time it has been
moving
The distance over which a wave has travelled is called the fetch.
A wave breaks when friction with the seabed slows down the bottom of the wave, but the
top continues at same rate and topples forward.
Types of wave
Constructive
Depositional
Circular Orbit
Great wave length
Small wave height
Swash exceeds backwash
Destructive
The opposite of Constructive
Processes of Erosion
Hydraulic Action ­ Water is forced into cracks in rock under pressure, this breaks up the
rock.
Abrasion ­ Sand, pebbles and large stones scrape against the rock, wearing it away like
sandpaper.
Attrition ­ Chunks of rock get knocked together and worn into smaller bits.
Solution ­ The water dissolves soluble material from the rock
Processes of Transport
Solution ­ dissolved materials
Suspension ­ silt sized particles carried along
Saltation ­ small stones bouncing
Traction large stones rolling
Depositional/Erosional Features
Spit ­ Spurn Head, Humberside
Caves, arches, stacks, stumps ­ Southern Down, Wales
Wave cut platform ­ Seven Sisters, Eastbourne
*FIND EXAMPLES OF HEADLANDS, BAYS, CONCORDANT COASTLINE<
TOMBOLOS, SAND BAR
Coastal Management
Hard Engineering
Sea Wall ­ Curved concrete wall at the base of a cliff, waves hit it and are deflected
away. Traditional but expensive, wave energy not dispersed. E.g.Withernsea

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Groynes ­ Wooden barriers built perpendicular to beach at regular intervals. Traps
sediment from LSD and disperses wave energy. Quite cheap and repaired easily,
but need regular maintenance. E.g. Mappleton
Soft Engineering
Beach Nourishment ­ material lost from LSD is replaced regularly, but sand
gravek must be taken from another beach. Appears natural but is expensive,
E.g. Hornsea
Sustainable Management
Managed Retreat Let coast naturally retreat backwards and relocate people
away from area at risk and compensate farmers for lost land.…read more

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