Caregiver-infant interactions

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Caregiver-infant interactions

A01: Key words and people
Attachment: An emotional bond between 2 people. It's a 2 way process that endures over time. It leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity seeking and serves the function of protecting an infant.  

Caregiver: Any person who is providing care for a child. 

Reciprocity:(Jaffe et al) Responding to the action of another with a similar action, where the actions of one partner elicit a response from the other partnet. The responses aren't necessarily similar as in interactional synchrony.
Brazeltzon

Interactional Synchrony: When 2 people interact they tend to mirror what the other is doing in terms of facial and body movements. This includes imitating emotions as well as behaviours. This is described as synchrony- when 2 things move in the same pattern.

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Caregiver-infant interactions

A01: Reciprocity

Reciprocity:(Jaffe et al) Responding to the action of another with a similar action, where the actions of one partner elicit a response from the other partnet. The responses aren't necessarily similar as in interactional synchrony. 
Research found that infants coordinate their actions with their caregivers. When a baby moves in thythm with an adult, as if they are taking turns in a conversation.
Brazeltzon suggested that ht ebasic rhythm is important in later communications. The infant's signals allows the caregiver to respond appropriately to the infant's behaviour. The sensitivity lays the foundation for later attachments. 

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Caregiver-infant interactions

A01:Interactional Synchrony
Interactional Synchrony: When 2 people interact they tend to mirror what the other is doing in terms of facial and body movements. This includes imitating emotions as well as behaviours. This is described as synchrony- when 2 things move in the same pattern.
Later research found that when a baby mirrors the actions of another person, in terms of facial expressions and body movements. The actions or behaviours are in synchrony.  
Meltzoff and Moore conducted a study and found that infants as young as 2-3 weeks old imitated specific gestures. 

Meltzoff and Moore study: Conducted the first stufy of interactional synchrony, using a controlled observation. 
The study used an adult model who displayed 1 of 3 different facial expressions or a hand gesture. A dummy was placed in the infants mouth during the initial display to prevent any response. The dummy was then removed and the child's expression was filmed. They were watched in real tie, slow motion and frame by frame. The video was jusged by independent observers who did not know what the infant had just seen. Behavioual categories were devised for the observers to note any movements. Each observer watched the tapes twice so inter-observer and intra-observer reliability could be calculated. All scores were greater than 0.92.

The results revealed an association between the infant behaviour and that of the adult model. Later research revealed the same findings in 3 day old infants, suggesting that interactional synchrony is innate. 

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