Birth of civilizations

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  • Chapter 2: Birth of Civilisations
    • Civilisation
      • In the past, people hunted for food everywhere, but after learning hot to farm, they settled down. Soon, a culture formed.
        • Culture = shared religion, language, values and attitudes that influence people's way of life
      • Organized ruling system
        • Later on, tools and clothes were made, buildings built and the size of the people grew, leading to rulers forming in order to keep the people living peacefully.
      • When one area has many people living in it, a city forms. When a city forms, a civilisation forms
        • Civilisation = A group of people living in the same area and advancing greatly in any field of knowledge after some time
      • Cradle of civilisation = any possible locations for the beginning of a civilisation
        • Earliest civilisations developed in c. 3800 BCE
      • Cradle of civilisation was found to be near fertile river valleys generally
        • Agriculture was the main factor in the earliest civilisations as it provided enough food for people to live in the same place permanently
    • Why do we study ancient civilisation in India, China and Southeast Asia?
      • The study of ancient civilisations provides us the insight gow it influences the development of modern human civilisation
    • What are the common features present in these different ancient civilisations?
      • Writing system = Used to represent ideas, thinking, communication and recording of events for passing down information
      • Culture and society = Religions and social classes
      • Economic activities = Different occupations that people carried out for a livelihood
      • Government = How a place was organised and controlled
    • Why were  rivers important to the early development of a civilisation?
      • Provided continuous accessible fresh water supply t=for the people to drink or water their crops
      • Used for transportation for people to travel or trade goods
      • Fertile land around rivers allowed people to grow crops
      • Provided a wealth of other food resources


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