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Crude Oil

What is Crude Oil?

What uses are there for it?

Why is it so important?

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Crude Oil is one of the three fossil fuels and is a major part of our lives.

Crude Oil Can be Split into different Fractions using Fractional Distillation, where Crude Oil can be turned into Bitumen, Petrol and other fractions.

It is also very good for making plastics and other chemicals. It can be used to make paints, solvents, detergents and lots of medicines. The reason its so useful is because its made of carbon which are made of four colvant bonds which can join atoms together in lots of different ways. Carbons can be arranged in chains or rings.

Unlike other molecules carbon can huge molecules containing hundreds of atoms joined together like hormone insulin: C257H383N65O77S6

There is also the chance that it will run out, which is extremely bad as most of our factories and cars run on the products of Crude Oil.

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What are Plastics?

Name some of the Plastics?

What Problems are there with Plastics?

What different types of Plastics are there?

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Plastics are Long-Chain Molecules called Polymers

They're formed when lots of small molecules called monomers join together to make a Polymer. The name of the plastic comes from the type of monomer it's made from - you just stick the word 'poly'in front of it, for example Ethene = Polyethene, Propene = Polypropylene, Styrene = Polystyrene.

There is one major problem with Plastic and that it how do we get rid of it, its non-biodegradable which means it doesn't decompose and also only 17.5%of it is Recycled, It can be put into an insinirator which turns it into a fuel but the process emits a lot of toxic fumes into the atmosphere

Forces between Molecules determine the Properties of Plastics

Thermoplastic Polymer: don't have cross-linking between chains. The forces between the chains are really easy to overcome, so it’s dead easy to melt it, this means you can remould them as much as possible because they harden when they cool.

Thermosetting Polymers: They have Crosslinks and hold them together forming a solid structure. They don't melt, but burn when its too hot. They're Hard, Strong and Rigid.

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Relative Formula Mass

How to work out Relative Mass?

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Relative Atomic Mass, A, - Easy Peasy

This is just a way of saying how heavy different atoms are compared with the mass of an atom of Carbon - 12. So carbon-12 has R,A,M, of exactly 12.

42He: The Mass number is the relative atomic mass, so Helium has an A of 4

126C: So Carbon has an A of 12

Relative Formula Mass, M, - Also Easy Peasy

Mg + Cl2 = MgCl2

24 + (35.5 x 2) = 95

Question: Find the relative Formula mass for the alcohol C2H4(OH)2

A, for C = 12 A, for H = 1 A, for O = 16

C2 + H4 + (OH)2 = C2H4(OH)2

(12 x 2) + (1 x 4) + [(16 + 1) x 2] = 62

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