BY1: Carbohydrates

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What is the general formula of a monosaccharide?

(CH2O)n

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What is the formula for a triose carbohydrate?

C3H6O3

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What is the name given to a carbohydrate with the

Pentose

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Name a triose carbohydrate?

Glyceraldehyde

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Name two pentose carbohydrates?

Deoxyribose

Ribose

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Name a hexose carbohydrate.

Glucose

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What is a disaccharide?

Two monosaccharide's joined together by a glycosidic bond formed during a condensation reaction.

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How do you undo a condensation reaction?

Hydrolisis 

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What is Lactose made up of?

Alpha glucose and galactose

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What does glucose + glucose form?

Maltose

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What is sucrose made up of?

Glucose

Fructose

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Describe alpha glucose.

Alpha glucose has a hydrogen group above the plane of the ring on carbon atom 1.

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Describe beta glucose.

Beta glucose has a hydroxil group above the plane of the ring on carbon atom 1.

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What is an isomer?

Molecules which has the same chemical formula but different structures.

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What is the formula of a disaccharide?

C12H22O11

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Fructose is a pentose shape. Why is it a hexose?

It has 6 carbon atoms.

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What are the two types of polysaccharide?

Storage

Structural

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Give four properties of storage polysaccharides.

  • compact
  • easy to add or remove molecules
  • Insoluble
  • dont exert an osmotic effect
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What is glycogen used as?

Storage in animals

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What is glycogen made of?

Alpha glucose

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Which two types of chains is starch made of?

Amylopectin

Amylose

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Where is starch made?

plants

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Name two structural polysaccharides?

Cellulose

Chitin

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What is cellulose made of?

Beta glucose

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How do beta glucose form glycosidic bonds?

Every other beta glucose rotates 180 degrees

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Describe the structure of cellulose

Adjacent chains can join together by hydrogen bonding to form microfibrils

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