Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides
      • trioses
      • pentoses
        • ribose
        • deoxyribose
          • constituents of nucelotides that form RNA and DNA
            • ribose
      • hexoses
        • beta glucose
          • produce disaccharides: alpha + fructose = sucrose         aphla + alpha = maltose
            • fructose
            • alpha glucose
        • fructose
        • alpha glucose
    • Disaccharides
      • maltose
        • product of starch digestion
      • sucrose
        • (cane sugar) form in which carbohydrates are transported in plants
    • Polysaccharides
      • amylose
        • a-glucose monomer
        • a-1,4 glycosidic bonds only
        • unbranched, helical
        • found in starch grains in living plant cells - store of glucose
      • amylopectin
        • a-glucose monomer
        • a-1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
        • branched, helical
        • found in starch grains in living plant cells - store of glucose
      • glycogen
        • a-glucose monomer
        • a-1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
        • branched, helical
        • found in granules in liver and muscle cells of mammals - store of glucose
      • cellulose
        • B-glucose monomer
        • B-1,4 glycosidic bonds only
        • straight chains cross-linked to parallel chains
        • found in cell walls of plant cells - structural support
    • form by: condensation reactions
    • break down by: hydrolysis reactions
      • glycosidic bond
        • form by: condensation reactions

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