3.1.2 Carbohydrates

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  • 3.1.2 Carbohydrates
    • Mono-saccharides
      • Monomers from which larger carbohydrates are made
      • Examples
        • Glucose
        • Galactose
        • Fructose
      • Condensation reaction forms glycosidic bond
        • Formed by the condensation of two mono-saccharides
    • Disaccharides
      • Formed by the condensation of two mono-saccharides
      • Examples
        • Maltose
          • Two glucose
        • Sucrose
          • Glucose & fructose
        • Lactose
          • Glucose & galactose
    • Glucose
      • Alpha glucose
      • Beta glucose
      • Poly-saccharides
        • Condensation of beta glucose
          • Cellulose
            • Structure
              • Straight, unbranched chains
                • Parallel
                  • Hydrogen bonds
            • Function
              • Cell walls
                • Provides rigidity
                • Prevents cell bursting as osmosis occurs
                • Forms microfibrils
        • Condensation of alpha glucose
          • Glycogen
            • Energy storage (animal cells)
            • Structure
              • Compact
                • More storage
              • Insoluble
                • Does not draw water into cell by osmosis
                • Does not diffuse out of cell
              • Highly branched
                • Has more ends to be acted on by enzymes
                  • Rapidly broken down into glucose for respiration
          • Starch
            • Function
              • Energy storage (plant cells)
            • Structure
              • Insoluble
                • Branched
                • Unbranched
                  • Coiled
            • Iodine test
              • Yellow- blue/black
    • Biochemical tests
      • Benedict's test
        • Non- reducing sugars
        • Reducing sugars
          • Mono-saccharides and some disaccharides
          • Add sample to reagent & heat
            • Orange- brown
              • (Yellow to brown depending on concentration)
      • Iodine test
        • Yellow- blue/black

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