carbohydrates

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  • carbohydrates
    • what is a carbohydrate?
      • carbohydrates are made from monosaccharides
        • all carbohydrates contain the elements C H and O
          • most carbohydrates are polymers
            • the monomers they are made from are monosacharides E.G glucose fractose and galactose
              • monosaccharides
                • monosaccharides join together too form disaccharides (two) and polysachharides(many)
                  • like proteins monosaccharides are joined together by a condenstaion reaction
                    • during the condesation reaction a water molecule is released and a glycosidic bond forms between the two monosacchrides
    • monosaccharides
      • monosaccharides join together too form disaccharides (two) and polysachharides(many)
        • like proteins monosaccharides are joined together by a condenstaion reaction
          • during the condesation reaction a water molecule is released and a glycosidic bond forms between the two monosacchrides
    • breaking down
      • disacchrides and polysacchraides are broken down during digestion
        • enzymes released by the intestinal epithelium nydrolyse disaccharides and polysacccharides
    • lactose
      • lactose intolerance is cause by the lack of lactase
        • lacrose is a sugar found in milk
          • it is digested by an enzyme called lactase found in the intestine
            • undigested lactase is fermentated by bacteria and can cause a whole host of intestinal complaints such as stomach cramps, excessive flatulance and diarrheoa
    • starch
      • starch is made up of a mixture of two polysacharides- amylose and amylopectin
        • both consist of long chains of alpha glucose linked together by glycosidic bonds formed in a condensation reaction
          • when starch is digested, its first broken down into maltose by amylase- an enzyme released by the salivary glands and the pancreas
            • maltose is broken down into alpha glucosen molecules by maltase, which is released by the small intestine

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