BTEC Sport - Unit 1 (Single)

Bones of the Body

- Cranium                                                       - Carpals

- Manible                                                        - Metacarpals

- Clavicle                                                        - Phalanges

- Scapula                                                        - Femur

- Sternum                                                       - Patella

- Ribs                                                             - Tibia

- Pelvis                                                          - Fibula

- Humerous                                                   - Tarsals

- Radius                                                        - Metatarsals

- Ulna                                                            - Phalanges

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Postural Deviations

  • Kyphosis (hunchback) - excessive, outward curvature of the spine (cervicle)
  • Lordosis - excessive, inward curvature of the spine (lumbar)
  • Scoliosis - abnormal twisting of the spine
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Describing the location of bones within the body

  • Anterior - to the front or in front 
    • sternum is anterior to the vertebrae
  • Posterior - the the rear ot behind
    • vertebrae is posterior to the sternum
  • Medial - towards the midline/axis, an imaginary line down the centre of the body
    • pelvis is medial compared to the carpals
  • Lateral - away from the middle/axis
    • metacarpals are lateral compared to the sternum
  • Proximal - near to the root or origin
    • femur is proximal to the patella
  • Distal - away from the root or origin
    • tarsals are distal to the fibula
  • Superior - above
    • humerous is superior to the ulna
  • Inferior - below
    • tibia is inferior to the femur
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Axial Skeleton

The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton which can't be 'taken off'. It consists of:

  • cranium
  • mandible
  • sternum
  • ribs
  • vertebrae
  • pelvis
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Appendicular Skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is the parts of the body that could be 'taken off', so the limbs. This consists of:

  • scapula
  • clavicle
  • humerous
  • radius
  • ulna
  • carpals
  • metacarpals
  • phalanges
  • femur
  • patella
  • tibia
  • fibula
  • tarsals
  • metatarsals
  • phalanges
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The Process of Bone Growth

The 3 O's

  • Ossification - the process of bone growth
  • Osteoblast - builds new bone matter
  • Osteoclasts - clears away old bone matter

Epiphyseal plate is the cartilage at the end of the bone that allows ossification to occur. When you stop growing, it fuses into solid bones called an epiphyseal line.

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Functions of the Skeleton

  • Support - your bones give your body shape and providea supporting framework. Long bones
  • Protection - they protect your vital organs. Flat bones
  • Muscle Attatchment - provides attatchment areas for the muscles, therefore creating movement. Irregular bones
  • Blood Cell Protection - bone marrow is located in the centre of your bones, here white and red blood cells are made, particularly red. Long bones
  • Store of Minerals - minerals, such as calcium and phosphorous, are stored in the bone, which are essential for bone growth. Long bones
  • Leverage - bones provide a lever system which muscles can pull on to create movement. Long bones
  • Weight Bearing - bones will support the weight of your tissue, including muscles. Short bones
  • Reduces Friction across a joint - synovial joints secrete fluid that prevents bones rubbing together. Sesamoid bones
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Types of Joint

There are 3 types of joint:

  • Fibrous (fixed):
    • These joints can not move as they have fibrous tissue between the bones. An example of this is the cranium
  • Cartilaginous (slightly moveable):
    • There is a pad of fibrocartliage between the bones that form the joint. An example of this is the vertebrae
  • Synovial (freely moveable):
    • They allow a wide range of movement. There are 6 types of synovial joints. They offer the higherst level of mobility
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Synovial Joints

The 6 types of synovial joint include:

  • Hinge - it has movement along one axis and can only perform flexion and extension. This is found at the knee or elbow.
  • Ball and Socket - it allows movement in all axis and can perform all types of movement. This is found at the hip and shoulder joint.
  • Pivot - it has movement along on axis and can perform pronation and supernation. This is found when twisting the forearm.
  • Condyloid - it allows movement along two axis and can perform flexion/extension, addution/abduction and rotation. This is found at the wrist.
  • Saddle - this allows a slight roatation. This is found in the thumb.
  • Gliding - this allows a range of movements, however the ability to do them depends of its neighboring bones. This can be found in the carpals.
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Synovial Joint - Formation

Synovial joints consist of the following:

  • Ligament - holds the bones together
  • Synovial fluid - a viscous liquid that lubricates the joint and reduces friction between the bones, preventing them from rubbing together
  • Bursa - small fluid filled sac which provides a cushion between the tendons and the bones, preventing friction. They are filled with synovial fluid
  • Joint capsule - outer sleeve to help hold the bones in place. This capsule will contain the main joint
  • Articular cartilage - located at the end of the bones; provides a smooth and slippery surface so bones do not grind on each other
  • Synovial membrane - the capsule lining that releases synovial fluid
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Range of Movement

Flexion - reducing the angle at a joint

Extension - increasing the angle at a joint

Adduction - movement towards the body's vertical midline

Abduction - movement away from the body's vertical midline

Circumduction - this is a circular movement that results in a conical action

Rotation - circular movement of a limb

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Range of Movement

Dorsi-flexion - decreasing the angle of the ankle joint

Plantar-flexion - increasing the angle of the ankle joint

Lateral flexion - the movement of bending sideways

Hyper extension - involve movement beyond the normal anatomical position in a direction opposite to flexion

Horizontal abduction/adduction - the movement of bringing your arm across your body (flexion) and back again (extension)

Horizontal flexion/extension - bending the elbow whilst the arm is out infront of your body; straightening the arm whilst it is out in front of you.

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Range of Movement - Sporting Examples

Flexion - at the knee when preparing to kick a ball in football

Extension - the action of bringing you leg forward to kick the ball in football

Adduction - arm setting in trampolining

Abduction - holding the rings in crucifix position in gymnastics

Circumduction - bowling in cricket

Rotation - backhand with top-spin in table tennis

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Range of Movement - Sporting Examples

Dorsi-flexion - preparation when in the blocks at the beginning of 100m sprint

Plantar-flexion - on point in ballet

Lateral flexion - starting a cartwheel

Hyper extension - vertebrae when bowling in cricket

Horizontal abduction/adduction - preparing to hit the ball in tennis/hitting the ball in tennis 

Horizontal flexion/extension - protecting the face in boxing/throwing a punch in boxing

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Short and Long Term Effects

Short term:

  • produce more synovial fluid in the joints, so thast the joints are lubricated well for the extra strain of exercise
  • the fluid will become less viscous and the range of movements at the joint will increase
  • the release of synovial fluid from the synovial membrane will provide increased nutrients to the articular cartilage
  • the increased uptake of minerals, such as calcium,within the bones to increase bone density

Long term:

  • exercise will increase your bone density minerals giving you stronger bones, which will therefore make you more resistant to the forces in sport
  • ligament strength will increase and will become more flexible
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Additional Effects

Arthiritis:

  • is a condition where there is inflammation in a synovial joint causing pain abd stiffness. Caused by general wear and tear over a long period of time
  • regular exercise will produce more synovial fluid to imporvejopint lubrication and also provide important minerals to the cartilage, so can reduce the effect of arthritis

Osteoporosis:

  • is a condition of weakening te bones caused by loss in calcium or lack of vitamin D
  • regular exercise can help to prevent osteoporosis by promoting an increased mineral uptake within the bones, leading to an increase in bone density,such as resistance training

Age:

  • doing too much resistance training at an early age can cause more harm than good, as a child's bones are still growing and damage to the epiphyseal plate can affect how they grow
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