• Created by: mhyde68
  • Created on: 27-10-18 12:06

Types of Muscle

Cardiac muscle- Invinlunatry,Non Fatigueing,moderate to high contraction speed. E.G Heart

Smooth Muscle- Involuntary provides oxygen,slow contaction minutes or hours. E.G blood vessels or intestines aerobic.

Skeletal Muslces- Lots of fibres attach to bones and joints, Movement and Leverage, Voluntary E.G Abdomnials,Bi-ceps and Pectorals

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Muscle fibres

Type 1- Areobic and slow, Red muscles,oxygen binding,supplied with vessels. Marathon and long distance swiming.

Type 11a- Fast, Fatigue quickly,dark red,atp,glycogen. Sprinting in football

Type 11x- Largest diameter,low myoglobin and atp. Sprint 100m

For a muscle twitch to happen there must be a sufficient nerve impulse triggering motor neurones in motor units. This then allows muscle fibres to attach creating a twitch.

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Muscle Contractions

Isometric- length of muscle does not change-static position. Rugby Scrum

Concentric- Muscle shortening. Origin and insertion closer together. Shoulder Press Upward movement.

Ecentric-Lengthing of muscle. Origin and insertion further away. Bench Press Downwards movement.

Permysium-Connective tissue

Epimysium-Muscle Sheath

Endomysium-Acts as insulator.

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Sliding filament theory

  • Nerve impulse
  • Calcium released through sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • Transverse tubulus transports it
  • Combines with troponin to pproduce tropomyosin
  • Myosin bnding sites formed
  • Cross bridge
  • Power stroke contract
  • ATP+D=atp phase
  • Calcium runs out recovery stroke no more tropomysoin so the muscle relaxes and stops cycle.
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Components of Blood

RBC-Bi-concave bigger surface area to carry more oxygen.

Platlets- Clots blood cells

WBC- Fights infections and defends body against disease

Plasma- Carries nutrients and makes it easier to transport.

Lymphatic system- Drainage network that helps body rid of toxins,waste and excess fluid forms part of the immune system. Lymph conatins wbc to fight infection.

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Cycle of Heart

de-oxygenated= Right atrium, Tricuspid Valve, Right ventricle, Semi lunar valve, Pulmonary artery,Lungs

oxygentated-Pulmonary vein, Left atruim, Bicuspid- valve, Left ventricle, Semi-lunar valve, Aorta, Arteries

Systole- Contracting


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Blood vessels

Layers- Inner tubila intima-creates a slick surface minimises friction

-The middle tunic media- smooth and elastic tissue. Either Vasodilation or Vasoconstruction

-The outer tunic externa- made from collagen fibres protects and reinforces vessels.


Aorta- pumps blood to muscles 

Vena cava- flows blood from lungs to heart

Pulmonary artery- blood away from heart

Pulmonary vein- pumps blood toward heart 

Atreries-away from heart  Arterioles- smaller versions of arteries

Veins- towards heart Venuoles- smaller versions of veins

Capillaries- recycles flow

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Functions of CV system


  • Thermoregulation
  • Clots blood
  • Fights infection
  • Controls blood flow
  • Removes waste from body
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