British Depth Study

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  • Created by: EllenMIW
  • Created on: 21-12-15 16:49

Characteristics of poverty

  • Low life expectancy
  • Large families
  • High crime rates
  • Malnutrition
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John Galt

  • Raised awareness of poverty in East End
  • Religious
  • Missionary
  • Photographs shown at meetings, etc.
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Charles Booth

  • Successful businessman
  • Wanted to see if reports were true
  • Poverty worse than he expected
  • Showed 30% of people living below poverty line
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Seebohm Rowntree

  • York
  • Social Reformer
  • 1901, published book "Poverty; A Study of Town Life"
  • Wanted to insight reform through statistics
  • Poverty caused by old age, illness, etc.
  • York, 27% below poverty line
  • Shocked people
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Why did the Liberals introduce reforms?

  • New attitudes - not fault of poor
  • Boer War - 50% volunteers unfit for service
  • Industry challenged by USA and Germany - Bismarck's welfare programme
  • Lloyd George and Churchill both supported reforms
  • Wanted to show difference from Conservatives
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Free School Meals Act, 1906

  • Allowed (not forced) local governments to provide free meals
  • By 1914, 14 million meals served
  • 50% governments set up programme
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Medical tests for children, 1907

  • Optional local authorities
  • Check ups, no treatment
  • 1912 - extended to provide treatment
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Children's Charter, 1908

  • Children and Young Person's Act
  • Protected status
  • Prosecution for neglect
  • Illegal to insure child's life
  • U14 not in pubs or pawnbrokers, U16 no cigarettes
  • Juvenile prisons and courts
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Pensions Act, 1908, Positives/Negatives

Positives

  • 5 shillings a week for single, 6 for married couple (over 70s)
  • 80,000 no longer claimed poor relief
  • 650,000 in 1st year
  • Non-contributary (from state only)

Negatives

  • Had to be working for 20 years prior
  • Life expectancy 45 for poor
  • Evidence needed
  • Not for lunatics, convicts or alcoholics 10 years prior
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Labour Exchanges, 1909

  • 1913 - 3,000 given work everyday (not permament work)
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National Insurance Act, 1911

  • 16 to 70 yrs had to join health scheme
  • Worker paid 4d a week, employer 3d, state 2d
  • Free medical attention
  • 26 weeks sick pay of 10 shillings
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Critics of reforms

  • Conservatives - costs
  • Doctors - health insurance
  • No National Insurance Benefits to widows
  • Workers - pay deductions
  • Labour - thought benefits should come from taxes of upper class
  • Wealthy - disliked 1908 budget
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For Women's Suffrage 1890

  • Domestic issues affected women
  • Other countries had women's suffrage
  • Pay tax
  • Better education than before - interested and capable
  • Moral voice, churchgoers - "Spines of the Nation"
  • Vote locally already
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Against Women's Suffrage 1890

  • Protection from corruption of politics
  • Husbands already take wife's view into account when voting
  • Emotional
  • More women would vote than men
  • Politics = men's sphere
  • Do not fight in war
  • Queen Victoria
  • PM Asquith
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NUWSS

  • Suffragists
  • Millicent Fawcett
  • 1897, 500 branches
  • 1900, Liberal support
  • Debates
  • Leaflets
  • Petitions
  • Questioning
  • Liberals, some Conservatives, middle class women supported
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WSPU

  • Suffragettes
  • Emeline Pankhurst
  • Founded in 1903
  • 1908 - campaign intensified and became vocal
  • Speeches
  • Protests
  • Crowd rush
  • Harassment
  • Stoning
  • Disruption
  • Marches
  • Sympathetic public, outspoken women supported
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Conciliation Bill, 1911

  • Promised votes for women
  • Suffragettes suspended all militant action
  • Earned highest ever majority (167) in Parliament
  • Asquith dropped bill
  • BOTH GROUPS FURIOUS
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Suffragist Response to Conciliation Bill

  • Deputation to see PM
  • Supported Labour
  • Peaceful pilgrimage from Carlisle to London
  • Free membership to working women
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Suffragette Response to Conciliation Bill

  • Escalated violence - smashed windows, burnt post boxes, cut telephone wires
  • Hunger strike in prison
  • Posters of degrading of women through force feeding
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Cat and Mouse Act

  • 1913
  • Hunger strikers released from prison
  • Then re-arrested once healthy
  • Stopped deaths in prison
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Effectiveness of Suffragettes up to 1914

  • 40,000 magazines in circulation
  • Attention through admiration and sympathy through bravery
  • Violence alienated cause
  • Many left to join Suffragists
  • 2000 members (small)
  • Prison
  • After 1911, Parliament against suffrage
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Effectiveness of Suffragists up to 1914

  • Over 50 branches, 100,000 members
  • Much publicity
  • Crowds of 20,000+
  • People liked non militant attitude
  • Good links with labour
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Death of Emily Davison

  • 4th June 1913, Epsom Derby
  • Prison 9 times for suffragette campaign
  • Martyrdom
  • Tried to put banner on King's horse, hit and killed
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Role of women in WW1

  • Women's Land Army (250,000 women)
  • Did 'male' jobs
  • Dangerous work
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Issues on home front in WW1

  • Food, fuel, labour shortages
  • Fear of invasion, death, espionage
  • Rising prices, lower production
  • Censorship
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Conscription methods/techniques

Methods

  • Cinema, radio, newspapers
  • Leaflets, posters
  • Peer pressure
  • Order of the White feather
  • Speeches

Techniques

  • Pay
  • Experience, adventure
  • Glorification
  • Respect
  • Anger/vengeance
  • Camaraderie
  • Guilt
  • Patriotism
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For conscription, 1916

  • Service to country
  • Dead and wounded replaced
  • 1915, numbers of volunteers dropped rapidly
  • 1916, volunteers at lowest
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Against conscription, 1916

  • Religions against violence
  • Other workers still part of war effort
  • Shortages of some labour, eg miners
  • Sent to deaths
  • People discouraged by deaths
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DORA, 1914

  • Defence of the Realm Act
  • Government secrets
  • Spies
  • Civilian safety
  • Morale
  • Food and resources
  • No kite flying
  • No bread fed to animals
  • Binoculars prohibited
  • No bonfires
  • Goverment can seize any land or factory
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Food supply problems

  • 1 in 4 merchant ships sunk
  • 6 weeks of wheat left
  • Prices rose, only affordable by rich
  • Raised wages
  • Rationing - sugar, butter, meat, beer
  • Controlled bread prices
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Munitions Crisis

  • 1915
  • Training with sticks as not enough rifles
  • Shortage of shells
  • Lloyd George became Minister of Munitions
  • Coalition
  • Huge strikes
  • Firms supplying government did well, not workers
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Propaganda and censorship

  • Books/films
  • Negative portrayal of enemy
  • Public addresses
  • Good News Only
  • Censored letters
  • Royals set example
  • Toys and games that encouraged war
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How far did women contribute?

  • 20,000 female clerks
  • Order of the White feather
  • 800,000 in engineering jobs
  • Dangerous work
  • Salvation Army - to France as nurses, cooks, etc.
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Why were some women given the vote in 1918?

  • 1917 - all males over 21 gained right to vote
  • Women over 30 who were housholders or married to one (9 million)
  • Women could stand for Parliament
  • Full voting rights in 1928
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