Britain 1780-1928 : Terms, Concepts & Personalities

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  • Created by: AshLia
  • Created on: 10-11-17 18:54

The Monarchy

1780: The Crown could still appoint Prime Ministers and ministers through the use of patronage (the power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges) 

1928: Powers of the Crown much reduced; the political parties and public determined who the Prime Minister would be 

Key Landmarks: 

  • 1780s - 'Economical Reforms'
  • 1832 - Representation on the People Act
  • 1880 - Prime Minister Appointment
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Parliament (Lords & Commons)

1780: Nearly half of all Mmembers of Parliament in the House of Commons owed their seats to peers in the House of Lords

1928: The Lords could still delay legislation but not could no longer reject it; they also could not reject any budgets

Key Landmarks:

  • 1832 - Reform Act
  • 1909 - People's Budget
  • 1911 - Parliament Act
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Parliament (Membership)

1780: The House of Commons was dominated by the aristocracy, often being kinsmen of the Lords

1928: Most Members of Parliament were middle-class (such as commerical and professionals) and dozens of working-class

Key Landmarks:

  • 1858 - Abolition of property qualification
  • 1911 - Salaries introduced for Member's of Parliament
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Political Parties

1780: Party organisation was loose - Both Tories and Whigs were dominated by aristocracy

1928: Tories were now Conservatives, Whigs were now Liberals (Formed in c. 1859) and the Labour party were formed c. 1900

Key Landmarks: 

  • 1832 - Reform Act
  • 1834 - Tamworth Manifesto
  • 1867 - Reform Act
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Franchise

1780: Only 5% of the population  (11% of men) could vote; no women had the vote

1928: Universal sufferage achieved for all men and women the age of 21 and over

Key Landmarks:

  • 1832 - Reform Act
  • 1867 - Reform Act
  • 1884/5 - Reform Act
  • 1918 - Reform Act
  • 1928 - Reform Act
  • 1839-1848 - Chartist Movement
  • 1903-17 - Womens Social and Political Union
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Population

1780: England, Scotland and Wales - 10 million

           Irleand - 14 million

1928: 45 million for the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Norther Ireland)

Key Landmarks:

  • 1780-1850 - Main phase of Industrial Revolution (Facilitated urban growth)
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Economy

1780: Industrail Revolution just beginning; around 35% of population in urban areas in 1801

1928: Britain still dominated by declining staple industries (coal, iron, steel, cotton)

Key Landmarks:

  • 1790s - Economic downturn due to agitation
  • 1840s - Economic downturn due to agitation
  • 1910-20s - Economic downturn due to agitation
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UK's International Status

1780: Britain involved in War of American Independence; the Empire still growing

1928: Briain still a major world power but increasingly struggling following World War One

Key Landmarks:

  • 1780s - American War of Independence
  • 1957 - Indian Mutiny : Great War
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British Monarchs (1780 - 1928)

  • George III (1760 - 1820)

- Heavy expenditure during thr War of American Independence and use of patronage to infuence parliament led to calls for the powers of the Crown and royal expenditure to be curbed 

  • George IV (1830-1840)
  • William IV (1830-37)

- Under pressure from the majority Whig government to support the 1832 Reform Bill, he persuaded the Lords to abandon their opposition to the bill

  • Victoria (1837-1901)

-Wished to appont Lord John Hartington as Prime Minister in 1880, but had to appoint Gladstone instead due to preferenced in the Liberal Party at the time

  • Edward VII (1901-1910)
  • George V (1910-1936)
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Prime Ministers (1783 - 1929)

  • William Pitt 'The Younger' (1783 - 1806)

- Youngest ever Prime Minister - attempted  to make some parliamentary reforms, but also led the government's repsonce against radicals 

  • Earl Charles Grey (1830 - 4)

- Whig Prime Minister, the man behind Reform Bills, led to the Reform Act of 1832. Enfranchised the middle class but not the working class

  • Sir Robert Peel: (1834 - 5) (1841 - 6)

- Turned the Tories into the Conservative, showed that parliament could still pass laws in favour of workers, e.g the Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846)

  • Lord John Russell (1846-52) (1865-6)

- Whig/Liberal  in favour of reform, proposed Reform Bill 1866; was defeated but acted as a stimulus for the Conservative Reform Act of the following year

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Prime Ministers (1783 - 1929) Part 2

  • Benjamin Disraeli (1868, 1974 - 80)

- Main man behind 1967 Reform Act as Conservative leader in the Commons

  • William Gladstone (1868-74, 1880-85. 1886, 1892-4)

- Prime Minister 4 times; Introduced 3rd Reform Act; Endranchised better-off urban working class

  • Herbert Asquith (1908-16)

- Liberal; PM at outbreak of WWI; Opposed to female suffrage

  • David Lloyed George (1916-22)

- Sympatheitc to female suffrage; Some women gained vote in 1918; People's Budge 1909

  • Stanley Baldwin (1923-4, 1924-9)

- Consevative; PM during General Strike 1926, PM when women got the vote 1928; Equal Franshise Act

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