Biology Unit One

Every thing in unit one of biology.

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Blood Pressure

  • Blood is carried from the heart to all body parts in vessels called arteries.
  • Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against artery walls.
  • Blood pressure is at its highest when the heart beat. ( Systollic Pressure).
  • Between heart beats the blood pressure falls. (Diastollic Pressure).

High Blood Pressure Problems

  • Burst blood vessels
  • Damage to the brain
  • Strokes
  • Kindney damage

Low Blood Pressure Problems

  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Poor Circulation
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Respiration and Breathing

Breathing and Respiration

  •  B =Inhaling air and exhaling unwanted gases e.g carbon dioxide.
  • R =A series of reactions releasing enegry.

Aerobic Respiration

  • Releasing energy from sugar and oxygen. This takes place in every cell.
  • Glucose + Oxygen --- Carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY
  • ( C6H6O6 + 6O2 --- 6CO2 + 6H2O +  ENERGY )

Anaerobic Respiration

  • When our muscles respire without oxyegen, they make lactic acid.
  • Glucose ---- lactic acid + ENERGY
  • Lactic acid= oxygen + lactic acid ---- water + carbon dioxide.
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Keeping Healthy


  • Pathogen= Bacteria, Fungi & Viruses
  • Deficencies= Vitamins, minerals & Food

Infectious & Non Infectious diseases

  • Infectious= disease can be spread by conact with someone who has it.
  • Non Infectious=disease cannot be caught.


  • Caused by micro-oraganisms  &  Each pathogen has its own antigen
  • Damage cells and produces toxins (poisons)


  • Perscribed by a doctor & destroys bacterial and fungi diseases but not viruses
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Antigens and Antibodies


  • Any foreign substance that enters the body.
  • Can be harmless e.g pollen grains
  • Can be harmfull e.g pathogens


  • Responds by making the white blood cells produce antibodies
  • Different antibodies made for each antigen
  • Antibody locks on to antigen and kills pathogen

White Blood Cells

  • B lymphocytes are white blood cells that make antibodies


  • Injecting a harmless disease into body to engourage making antibodies
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  • A chemical that affects the body.

Class A 

  • Examples: Cocaine, heroin, LSD, ecstacy, mescalin
  • Dealer= life in prison and/or unlimited fine Taker= up to 7 years in prison 

Class B

  • Examples: Ritalin, amphetamins, methadrone, barbituits
  • Dealer= up to 14 year in prison Taker= up to 5 years in prison

Class C

  • Examples: Canabis, Tamazapine
  • Dealer= up to 14 years in prison Taker= up to 2 years in prison
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The Eye

The Eye

  • Detects sight/light
  • It is protected by the bony socket, tear ducts and eye lashes

The iris changes shape because of 2 sets of muscles:

  • Iris contracted - circular muscles contract
  • Iris contracted - radial muscles contract  


  • When the eye adjusts to focus on object at different distances.
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Homoeostasis and controlling blood sugar


  • Maintaining a constant internal environment too allow cells and enzymes to work at an optimum rate.

Blood sugar levels

  • Too much sugar in blood - the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin
  • Insulin goes to liver, the liver changes surplus sugar into glucogen (carbohydrate )
  • Blood delivers correct amount of sugar to cells to use as energy

Type 1 & 2 diabetes

  • 1 =Occurs genetically- immune system destroys cells in pancreas that make insulin- controlled with insulin injections, exercise and balanced diet.
  • 2 =Occurs when bodies cells don't respond to insulin 

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