Blood is carried from the heart to all body parts in vessels called arteries.
- Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against artery walls.
- Blood pressure is at its highest when the heart beat. ( Systollic Pressure).
- Between heart beats the blood pressure falls. (Diastollic Pressure).
High Blood Pressure Problems
- Burst blood vessels
- Damage to the brain
- Kindney damage
Low Blood Pressure Problems
- Poor Circulation
Respiration and Breathing
Breathing and Respiration
- B =Inhaling air and exhaling unwanted gases e.g carbon dioxide.
- R =A series of reactions releasing enegry.
- Releasing energy from sugar and oxygen. This takes place in every cell.
- Glucose + Oxygen --- Carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY
- ( C6H6O6 + 6O2 --- 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY )
- When our muscles respire without oxyegen, they make lactic acid.
- Glucose ---- lactic acid + ENERGY
- Lactic acid= oxygen + lactic acid ---- water + carbon dioxide.
- Pathogen= Bacteria, Fungi & Viruses
- Deficencies= Vitamins, minerals & Food
Infectious & Non Infectious diseases
- Infectious= disease can be spread by conact with someone who has it.
- Non Infectious=disease cannot be caught.
- Caused by micro-oraganisms & Each pathogen has its own antigen
- Damage cells and produces toxins (poisons)
- Perscribed by a doctor & destroys bacterial and fungi diseases but not viruses
Antigens and Antibodies
- Any foreign substance that enters the body.
- Can be harmless e.g pollen grains
- Can be harmfull e.g pathogens
- Responds by making the white blood cells produce antibodies
- Different antibodies made for each antigen
- Antibody locks on to antigen and kills pathogen
White Blood Cells
- B lymphocytes are white blood cells that make antibodies
- Injecting a harmless disease into body to engourage making antibodies
- A chemical that affects the body.
- Examples: Cocaine, heroin, LSD, ecstacy, mescalin
- Dealer= life in prison and/or unlimited fine Taker= up to 7 years in prison
- Examples: Ritalin, amphetamins, methadrone, barbituits
- Dealer= up to 14 year in prison Taker= up to 5 years in prison
- Examples: Canabis, Tamazapine
- Dealer= up to 14 years in prison Taker= up to 2 years in prison
- Detects sight/light
- It is protected by the bony socket, tear ducts and eye lashes
The iris changes shape because of 2 sets of muscles:
- Iris contracted - circular muscles contract
- Iris contracted - radial muscles contract
- When the eye adjusts to focus on object at different distances.
Homoeostasis and controlling blood sugar
- Maintaining a constant internal environment too allow cells and enzymes to work at an optimum rate.
Blood sugar levels
- Too much sugar in blood - the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin
- Insulin goes to liver, the liver changes surplus sugar into glucogen (carbohydrate )
- Blood delivers correct amount of sugar to cells to use as energy
Type 1 & 2 diabetes
- 1 =Occurs genetically- immune system destroys cells in pancreas that make insulin- controlled with insulin injections, exercise and balanced diet.
- 2 =Occurs when bodies cells don't respond to insulin