Biol 1002 - Biology and Physiology

What is the role of the nucleus?
Storage of most of cells DNA, site of DNA replication, genetic control of cell activities, assembly of ribosomes from RNA and specific proteins
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What is the role of ribosomes?
Protein synthesiser, found in all living cells, found in cytoplasm, mitochondria and cholorplast
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What is the role of the endomembrane system?
Protein modification and transport, detoxification, lipid synthesis
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What is the role of endoplasmic reticuluum?
Network of interconnected membranes, continuous with nuclear envelope, smooth and rough
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What is the role of golgi apparatus?
cisternae and vesicles, receives proteins from ER, further modification, concentrates, packages and sorts proteins before sending them to intra and extracellular destinations, synthesis of polysaccharides for cell wall
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What is the role of lysosomes?
contain digestive enzymes to break macromolecules down to monomers, consist of single membrane vesicles which break down food/foreign objects
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What is the role of mitochondria?
Energy transformers, inner membrane forms cristae, matrix contains ribosomes, DNA cells contain 1000+ mitochondria
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What is the role of chloroplasts?
Site of photosynthesis, contain chlorophyll, double membrane and internal membrane, light energy into chemical energy
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What is the role of cytoplasm?
Thick jelly-like solution that fills cells, cytosol is part not in organelles, nucleoplasm fills nucelus
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What is role of cytoskeleton?
Maintains cell shape and support, provides for various types of cell movement, microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
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Why can larger cells not satisfy their requirements by simple diffusion?
Surface area to volume ratio to small
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What is the function of a membrane?
Define and compartmentalise the cell, serve as site for specific functions, control movement in and out of cell and components, play role in cell-cell communication
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What is the fluid mosaic model?
Globular integral membrane proteins are inserted into a phospholipid bilayer, peripheral membrane proteins are not inserted into the lipid bilayer but are associated with the membrane indirectly by interaction with integral membrane proteins
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What do transports across membranes allow?
The input/export of specific materials into and out of cells, extrusion/sequestration of waste products, regulation of cell volume, maintenance of intercellular pH
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What is the role of membrane barriers?
Allows metabolic processes to take place in internal environment, (which is very different to the external environment), no more than 10nm thick, surround internal organelles (compartmentalisation)
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What is intracellular signal transduction?
A chain of reactions that transmit signals from the cell surface to a variety of intracellular targets, targets include transcription factors that function to regulate gene expression
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What is the role of intracellular signalling pathways?
Connect cell surface to nucleus, leading to changes in gene expression in response to extracellular stimuli
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Describe the steps of signal transduction?
1. Signal binds to receptor 2. Signal transmitted to specific regulator 3. Causes specific cellular response
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What are metabolic poisons and what are the 3 main types?
Metabolic poisons are enzyme inhibitors that interfere with the biochemical pathways that are involved in energy production or utilisation. 3 main types are; Electron transport inhibitors, uncoupling agents, Oligomycin
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What is compartmentalisation in membranes?
Compartments within a cell seperated by semi-permeable membranes, where different chemical reactions can take place under a more optimum environment, organelles allow for specialisation and efficiency
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What are membrane transporters?
Transmembrane proteins which determine the selective permeability of cell membranes and play a critical role in membrane function, two types; channel and carrier proteins
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What proteins aid in cell-cell recognition?
Some glycoproteins serve as identification tags specifically recognised by other cells
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What proteins aid in intracellular joining?
Membrane proteins of adjacent cells may be hooked together, known as adhesion molecules
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How are membrane proteins attached to cytoskeleton?
By microfilaments or other elements which bond to the membrane proteins
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What are the components of a prokaryotic cell?
Nucleoid region (chromosomes), pilli, ribosomes, flagellum, plasmid (DNA), cytosol, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule
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What is the role of the capsule in prokaryotic cells?
Found in some bacterial cells, this additional outer covering protects the cell when it is engulfed by other organisms, assists in retaining moisture, and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutrients
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What is the role of the cell wall in prokaryotic cells?
The cell wall is an outer covering that protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape.
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What is the role of the pilli in prokaryotic cells?
Hair-like structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other bacterial cells. Shorter pili called fimbriae help bacteria attach to surfaces.
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What is the role of the flagellum in prokaryotic cells?
Flagella are long, whip-like protrusion that aids in cellular locomotion.
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What is the role of the nuceloid region in prokaryotic cells?
Area of the cytoplasm that contains the single bacterial DNA molecule.
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What is the role of the plasmid in prokaryotic cells?
Plasmids are gene carrying, circular DNA structures that are not involved in reproduction
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What are the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
1. Eukaryotes contain membrane bound organelles, prokaryotes do not (eg. have no nucleus). 2. E are usually multicellular whereas P are unicellular 3. P contain single loop DNA (plasmid), E- DNA tightly bound and organised chromosomes
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What are the components of a plant cell?
Nucleus, nucleolus, chromatin, SER, RER, ribosomes, central vacuole, golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, cytoplasms, mitochondria, plasma membrane, chloroplast, cell wall, plasmodesmata, peroxisome,
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What is the role of the plasmodesmata in plant cells?
Connect cells together to facilitate water transport
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What is the role of the peroxisome in plant cells?
converting fatty acids to sugar and assisting chloroplasts in photorespiration
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What is the role of chromatin in plant cells?
efficiently package DNA into a small volume to fit into the nucleus of a cell and protect the DNA structure and sequence
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What are the adaptations in a plant cell wall compared to normal cell wall?
Need plasmodesmata to form links between cells, symplast for continuous cytoplams for water and nutrients flow
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Briefly describe the steps of the light dependent reaction
Light energy excites electrons in chlorophyll, electrons pass along electron carrier system, energy from excited electrons funds ATP, final electron acceptor forms NADP+, electron loss causes photolysis, 02 produced,
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Briefly describe the steps of the light independent reaction
ATP and NADPH2 from the light dependent react with GP to produce triose phosphate, this is used to produce either a 6C sugar or RuBP, triose phosphate (3C) to RuBP begins Calvin’s cycle and utilises ATP, RuBP+CO2 = 2 GP molecules
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Briefly describe non cyclic photophosphorylation
Excitation of electrons from light reaching chlorophyll of P680 and P700, electron acceptors receive the electrons, photosystems become oxidised, P680 receives electrons from lysis of H20 molecules, electrons passed along electron carrier system
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Briefly Describe Cyclic Photophosphorylation
Electrons from acceptor B move along an electron carrier chain to P700, electron passage along electron carrier system funds the production of ATP
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What is a virion?
A virus found outside the cell (extracellular), consists of capsid surrounding nucelic acid containing core, does not interact with the host cell,
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What are the shapes bacteria come in?(3 main, 4 other)
Rod (bacillus), sphere (coccus) and spiral (vibrio), helical, polyhedral, icosahedral, cucumber mosaic model
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What is a bacteriohage?
a virus which parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it
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What are the two ways that viruses replicate?
1. Lytic cycle 2. Lysogenic Cycle
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What are the 5 steps of viral reproduction?
1. Attachment (virus attaches to receptors on host cell wall) 2.Penetration (Nucleic acid enters cytoplasm of HC) 3.Replication 4.Assembly(newly synthesised viral components assembled into new virus) 5.Release (virus released to infect other cells)
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How do we control and treat viruses?
Vaccines, antiviral, medication to help side effects
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How do we classify viruses?
Viruses are mainly classified by phenotypic characteristics, such as morphology, nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms, and the type of disease they cause.
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What are the 3 types of cell -cell communication?
1.chemical (hormones, cytokines) 2.Electrical 3.Diffusion
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What are the 5 steps of the control mechanism?
1.stimulus 2.receptor 3.input 4.output 5. response
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What are cytokines?
Signalling molecules, long/short distances, act similarly to hormones but broader specificity to target cells and are not produced by specialised cells, no. increased during trauma or infection, secreted by immune system cells, secreted on demand
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What are the 5 steps of communication by synapse?
1.Action potential at axon terminal 2.Volted gated Ca2+ channels open 3. Ca2+ enters axon terminal 4.Ca2+ causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters by exocytosis 5.Neuro-T diffuses across synaptic cleft, binds to post-synaptic membrane
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What are the 5 steps of communication b y extracellular signals?
1.synthesis &release of signalling molecules 2.transport of signal to target cell 3. detection of signal by receptor protein 4.change in cellular metabolism 5.removal of signal, often terminating cellular response
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What are gap junctions?
Simplest form of communication, chemical and electrical signals transferred between adjacent cells, protein channel that creates cytoplasmic bridge between cells, joint connexions
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Whats syncytium?
Opening of a gap junction
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Whats a first and second messenger
First messengers are extracellular factors, often hormones or neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, growth hormone, and serotonin. Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular
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What are the four main types of tissue?
1. Epithelial 2.Connective 3.Muscle 4.Neural
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What are the 5 different types of epithelial tissue?
Single layer (simple), stratified, squamous, cuboidal, columnar
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Explain/discuss the 4 different functions of epithelial tissue
1. Exchange -simple squamous, allows free movement of gas 2.Transport- thick layer of cells, simple columnar/cuboidal, often have microvilli 3.Protection -stratified, prevent exchange between internal/external environments 4.Secretion - simple cells
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What are the 6 main types of connective tissue?
Areolar, adipose, reticular, dense, bone, blood
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Whats the function of connective tissue?
structural framework, fluid transport, protecting internal organs, supporting surrounding and interconnecting tissue, storing energy reserves, defense against micro-organisms
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Whats the structure of connective tissue?
ground substance is matrix insoluble protein fibres, glycoproteins between protein fibres, connective tissue cells embedded in matrix
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What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle
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What is the main function of muscle tissue?
Specialised for contraction, produce force and motion
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What are the 2 basic neural tissue cell types?
Neurons, neuroglia
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What is the main function of neural tissues?
Specialised conduction by electrical impulses
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What are the 4 stages of cell division?
1. G1 (allow growth, time to monitor internal/external environments) 2. S-Phase (DNA synthesis) 3.Gap 2 4.M Phase (Nuclear division, mitosis, cytoplasmic division , cytokenesis)
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What are the 3 checkpoints in cell division?
1. G1/S (is environment favourable?) 2.G2/M (is all dna replicated? 3.M/A
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What are the 3 functions of cell division?
1) Growth and development 2) tissue repair 3)reproduction
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What are the 5 steps of mitosis?
1) Interphase 2) Prophase 3) Metaphase 4) Anaphase 5) Telophase
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How do chromosomes move?
By a physical force by spindles, centrosomes, kinetochores
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What is the cytoskeleton?
Three types of filaments; microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments. Fibres are made up of many proteins joined together
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What is the mitotic spindle?
A bipolar array of microtubules (kinetochore, astral, interpolar) that assembles around the chromosomes and distributes the duplicated genome to the daughter cells during mitosis
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What are the centrosomes and what is their function?
Pair of centrioles that organise the centre for the spindle fibres, present in most but not all cells, go through duplication for cell division
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What is the kinetochore?
Attachment of chromatids to spindle, specialised microtubule attachment site, microtubules bound tightly
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What is synctyium?
When the cell does not undergo cytokenesis, multiple nuclei are generated
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What are the two ways chromosomes are moved from equator to the poles, explain them
1) Chromosomes pushed to poles by depolymerisation, filaments curl out and push kinetochore 2)Microtubule flux - microtubules depolymerise at minus ends, pulls chromosomes to polls
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What is cytokenesis?
Splitting of cytoplasm which beings in anaphase and ends after telophase, assembles just below plasma membrane and gradually contracts to form new plasma
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Why is mitosis going wrong a cause of disease?
If there is an incorrect amount of chromosomes, down syndrome occurs, cancer can occur when chromosomes miss the checkpoints
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What's the definition of evolution?
The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth
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Who is Thomas Malthus?
18th century economist, stated people tend to have more children that can possible survive, population been kept in check by famine, starvation and disease- discovered selection
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Who is James Hutton?
English geologist, proposed it is possible to explain geological land formations by processes that are currently in operation, 'the man who found time'
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Who is Jean Baptiste de Lamark?
Developed first comprehensive model of evolution, was a french zoologist, proposed organisms increased in complexity through time become of innate tendency, interaction drove process of evolution
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Who is Darwin?
He observed differences among island species, and their differences depending on where they lived, after investigating finches, Darwin developed idea of natural selection in 1838, followed by 'the origin of species'
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Explain the theory 'the origin of species'
1859, all organisms produce more offspring than can possibly survive, some have more offspring than others, some variation is heritable, some variation must influence reproductive success, desirable characteristics passed onto offspring,
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What are the fundamental characteristics for evolution by natural selection?
1. Variation in reproductive success 2.Variation in the trait 3.Heritability 4.Non-zero correlation between reproductive success and the trait
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What is micro and macro evolution?
Microevolution takes place all the time- mutation, selection, gene flow, genetic drift, macroevolution is the compounded effects of microevolution - same principle but we look at in terms of geological time, everything has one origin
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What is Mendel's First Law?
The Law of Segregation- During gamete formation each member of the allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic constitution of the gamete
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What is Mendels second law?
The Law of Independent Assortment- During gamete formation the segregation of the alleles of one allelic pair is independent of the segregation of the alleles of another allelic pair
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What are the key differences between plant cell walls and eukaryotes?
1. Cell wall needs plasmodesmata 2.Has symplast 3.extracellular water, minerals, and chemical compounds found around cells, in spaces of cell walls, and within intercellular spaces
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What are the 3 fundamental abilities of plants?
1. Totipotency - Potential capacity to develop into an entire plant if suitably stimulated 2.Dedifferentiation- Capacity of mature cells to return to meristematic condition 3.Competency -potential of cell or tissue to develop into certain way
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Where are stem cells found in plants?
The meristems, root apical meristems, lateral/axial meristems, floral meristems
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What are the membrane bound organelles specific to plants?
Plastids & Vacuoles
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What is the chiasma?
An inter-homolog connection that arises from an individual crossover event between nonsister chromatids
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What is the correct order of events during prophase 1?
Leptotene – Zygotene – Pachythene – Diplotene – Diakinesis
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How are chromosomes moved from the equator to the pole?
Depolymerisation of microtubules
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What is the order of the cell cycle?
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What are the steps in viral replication?
Attachment, penetration, replication, assembly, release
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What is a latent infection?
a virus which is quiescent most of the time with intermittent flare-ups of clinical disease
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What do envelope viruses have an envelope made of?
A hybrid structure of lipid-bilayers layers from the host and viral proteins
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What are complex viruses made out of (structure)?
Icosahedral head and helical tail
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the role of ribosomes?


Protein synthesiser, found in all living cells, found in cytoplasm, mitochondria and cholorplast

Card 3


What is the role of the endomembrane system?


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Card 4


What is the role of endoplasmic reticuluum?


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Card 5


What is the role of golgi apparatus?


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