What is a monosaccharide? And a polysaccharide?
What is the structure of glucose? And the components of maltose, lactose and sucrose?
Reactions to form and split polysaccharides?
Explain the structure of starch and glycogen and how they're related to their function.
Explain the structure of lipids, how they form and what are saturated & unsaturated lipids.
The heart and circulatory system.
What is a mass transport system?How is our system arranged? What are the advantages of double systems?
Explain the blood flow through body and heart chambers. Explain atrial and ventricular systole and diastole.
How is the heart adapted to its function? How do valves work and are adapted?
Explain the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries and how they're related to their function.
Explain the blood clotting process.
Explain the process which leads to atherosclerosis & myocardial infarctions.
Which are the 3 main risk factors for CVD? Explain the 2 types of cholesterol.
Explain the 4 treatments for CVD's and explain their advantages and disadvantages.
The cell membrane, transport and proteins.
Explain the structure of the cell membrane. How is it based on evidence?
Explain the terms osmosis, diffusion (facilitated too) and active transport.
How are the gas exchange surfaces? how is the mammalian lung adapted to its function?
Between which groups do the peptide bonds form? Which reactions from peptide bonds and split them?
What is the primary structure of a protein and how is it important?
What happens in the secondary structure?
Which bonds are made in the tertiary structure?
What are globular proteins and which is their structure? (Same for fibrous) give example.
DNA and DNA replication.
Explain the structure of DNA.
What is a nucleotide and how do nucleotides join? What is the sugar-phosphate backbone?
Which are the complementary bases? How do they join?
Explain what RNA is and its structure.
Explain the process of DNA replication.
How does the Messelson and Stalh's experiment prove that DNA replication is semi-conservative?
The genetic code and enzymes.
Why is the genetic code a triplet code?
What is a gene?
Outline the process of transcription(3) and translation (5).
What is the structure of enzymes? What do enzymes do?
How do enzymes reduce activation energy?
How does the tertiary structure affect the enzyme?
Explain the lock and key and the induced fit model.
Genes and mutations.
What is a mutation? What types of mutations are there?
Define the terms: allele, genotype, phenotype, recessive, dominant, gene, homozygote, heterozygote and carrier.
What is monohybrid inheritance?
What are genetic diagrams useful for? and genetic pedigree diagrams?
Explain the disease of cystic fibrosis.
How does CF affect the respiratory system? the reproductive system? the digestive system?
Genetic screening and gene therapy.
Explain the carrier identification genetic screening (include ethical issues).
Explain preimplatation genetic diagnosis. (include ethical issues).
Explain the 2 types of prenatal testing. (include ethical issues)
What is gene therapy? How are recessive and dominant alleles treated?
What is somatic therapy? And germ line therapy?
Explain how to measure the vit.C contents of fruit (6).
Explain how to measure membrane permeability of beetroot at different temperatures.
Explain how to measure enzyme activity with the starch and amylase experiment.
What is the difference between accuracy and reliability?