Biology Topic 4

  • Created by: Tia-H
  • Created on: 18-04-19 17:34

Plants

Photosynthesis     -     Endothermic

  • 6CO2 + 6H2O   =   C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • Carbon dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen
  • Rate is affected by - fertilliser (Magnisium & nitrates), Chlorophyll (Makes plants green) and Green houses (Lighting, greater yield, higher temp).

Leaf Adaption

  • Broad - Larger surface area.
  • Thin - Shorter diffusion distance.
  • Veins - Water in xylem, nutrients in the phloem.
  • Air spaces - Diffusion, CO2 goes in & O2 goes out.
  • Guard cells - Regulate gas exchange, open &close the stomata.

Carniverous Plants

  • Soil is low in minerals so get nutrients from animals.
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Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

  • C6H12O6 = 2C3H6O3 + Energy 
  • Glucose = Lactic acid + Energy
  • Muscle fatigue - Stop contracting efficienctly.

Oxygen debt - Lactic acid + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water

  • Build up of lactic acid - causes cramping.

Aerobic Respiration

  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 = 6H2O + Energy
  • Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
  • Glucose is stored as oxygen.
  • Exothermic
  • Energy Transfer - Muscles contract, Internal body temperature, Plants transport minerals , For all life functions.
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Response to Exercise & Use of Glucose in Plants

Response

  • To increase the rate of supply of O2 & glucose - Heart rate increases & arteries dialate.
  • Breathing rate increases - Remove CO2 quickly.
  • Breath deeper - Increase O2 entering & picked up by red blood cells.
  • Glycogen converted back to glucose for use.

Uses of Glucose in Plants

  • Cellulose - Strengthen cell wall, complex carbohydrates.
  • Fats & oils - Seeds, energy stored.
  • Growth - Glucose & nitrates make amino acids.
  • Starch - Boil leaf in ethanol, remove waxy cuticle, test in iodine, goes black.                        Storage and insoluable in water.
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Metabolism & Role of the Liver

Metabolism - Sum of all chemical reactions that happen inside the cell.

  • Breakdown of excess protein in the liver.
  • Formation of lipids.
  • Glucose to starch.
  • Making proteins.
  • Respiration & photosynthesis.

Role of the Liver

  • Detoxifying poisonous substances e.g. alcohol.
  • Breakdown old blood cells for storing iron.
  • Converts lactic acids.
  • Passes brokendown products into the blood.
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