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Rocks

Sedimentary Rock

Formed by layers of sediment (dead organisms and decaying materials) squashed down in seas or lakes.

Layers get buried under layers and the weight pushes out any water trapped, creating a rock.

Fluids flowing through the pores deposit natural cement.

Limestone Rock

Is a type of sedimentary rock.

They contain fossils.

Rock isnt formed at high temperatures so the dead organisms are not destroyed leaving a fossill.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Heliocentric Model - correct model, everything orbits the sun.

Geocentric Model - incorrect - everything orbits earth.

GALILEOS THEORY:

In 1610, Galileo was observing Jupiter using a telescope.

He saw 3 stars in a line near the planet.

He looked again the next evening and they had moved in the wrong direction.

After a week a 4th star appeared.

The stars never moved away from Jupiter 

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Heliocentric Model - correct model, everything orbits the sun.

Geocentric Model - incorrect - everything orbits earth.

GALILEOS THEORY:

In 1610, Galileo was observing Jupiter using a telescope.

He saw 3 stars in a line near the planet.

He looked again the next evening and they had moved in the wrong direction.

After a week a 4th star appeared.

The stars never moved away from Jupiter and seemed to be carried along with the planet.

This was when he realised that these planets were moons orbitting Jupiter.

This shows not everything orbitted the earth and the Geocentric was wrong.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Detecting waves from objects in space is how scientists know the things they do about space.

We can see the planets in our solar system because they reflect the suns light.

The naked eye is only useful for mapping the postions of stars and planets,

Telescopes magnify images so distant objects can be seen in more detail.

Photographs of the universe can be taken with telescopes.  This allows you to compare images of the universe at different times and share them with other scientists.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Formulas

SPEED = FREQUENCY X WAVELENGTH

  (m/s)              (Hz)                   (m)

WAVE SPEED - DISTANCE (m)

        (m/s)               TIME  (s)

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Waves

Frequency - How many complete waves there are passing a certain point.

Amplitude - Height of wave from midpoint.

Wavelength - Distance from one peak to the next.

WAVES TRANSFER ENERGY AND INFORMATION.

Image result for wavelength diagram (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/df504ecc44f0690dc88a53b7532182d8dc2e80ba.gif)

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Waves

Transverse - Light Waves and all other EM waves (electromagnetic), waves, strings and springs, S-waves and ripples on water.

TRANSVERSE WAVES VIBRATIONS ARE AT 90 DEGREES TO THE DIRECTION OF TRAVEL OF THE WAVE.

Longitudinal - Sound and ultrasound, P-waves, and a slinky spring when you push and pull the end.

LONGITUDINAL WAVES VIBRATIONS ARE ALONG THE SAME DIRECTIONS AS THE WAVE IS TRAVELLING.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Relfecting Waves

When a wave hits a boundary between one medium and another, some of the energy is reflected.

Light is reflected back at you in puddles.

Light is reflected back due to the change in density.

Water is denser than air.

Wwhenever a wave reaches a medium with a different density, some of the wave is reflected at the boundary.  This is how ultrascanning works. (different body tissues has different densities).

Refracting Waves

Waves travel at different speeds in substances that has different densities.

EM waves travel slower in denser media whilst sound waves travel faster.

When a wave crosses a boundary between two substances, it changes speed.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Real and Virtual images

Real Image - light from an object comes together to form an image 'on screen'.

Virtual Image - when rays are diverging so the light from an object appears to be coming from a completley different place.

Mirrors show a virtual image.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Converging Lenses - used to focus light

Converging lense is convex (bulges outwards).

Causes parallel rays to converge to a focus.

The axis of a lense is the line passing through the middle lens.

The focal point is where rays hitting the lens parallel to the axis meet.

Each lens has a focal point in front of the lens and one behind.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

EXPERIMENT TO WORK OUT FOCAL LENGTH OF A CONVERGING LENSE

Clamp the lens at one end of a track.

Clamp a white piece of card futher down the track.

Set up this equiptment near a window with the lens directed at a distant object.

Turn off lights in the room to make the image more visible.

Move the card along the track until the image is focused (sharpest picture).

Clamp the card in place once in focus.

Use a ruler to measure the distance between the centre of the lens and the card.

This would be the focal length.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

EXPERIMENT TO FIND HOW AN OBJECTS DISTANCE EFFECTS THE IMAGE

Set up the same experiment as finding the focal length but this time put an object the other side of the lens to the card.

Move the object away from the lens and move the card until a focused image of the object appears.

The object should be well lit but the screen shouldnt.

Make a note of the distance from the object to the lens and from the lens to the card.

Repeat this moving the object at different distances from the lens.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Refracting Telescopes - made up of an objective lens and an eyepiece lens.

The rays from the object (a star) would be coming from so far away that when it reaches the telescope it will almost be parallel.

The objectibve lens then converges these rays to form a real image at the focal point of the objective lens.

The rays of light from the real image enter the eye piece lens.

The lens then spreads them out so they leave at a wider angle than they entered.

The light rays will fill more of your retina (screen at the back of the eye).

This makes the image look magnified.

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Physics 1 Topic 1

Concave Mirrors - 

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