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B3I - Cloning


Plant and Animal Cells:
Animal Cells
o Nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria (where
respiration takes place)
Plant Cells
o Nucleus, Cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm,
chloroplasts, mitochondria
Respiration
o Turns glucose into energy and oxygen into water and
carbon dioxide, and releases energy.

Nucleus contains DNA:
Double…

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Proteins are made by DNA:
Proteins are made up from strands of amino acids
Each amino acid is made from 3 bases
Proteins are made from 20 different amino acids

How they work:
Enzymes are soluble protein molecules which speed reactions in
the body ­ biological catalysts…

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Some enzymes, such as those used in digestion, are adapted
to work faster in unusual pH conditions and may have an
optimum pH of 2 (very acidic) if they act in the stomach.






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DIFFUSION IS THE PASSIVE MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES FORM AN AREA
OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION



Speeding up diffusion:
Particles move faster, eg when they're warmer
concentration difference is greater, eg by replacing air in the
lungs with fresh air rich in oxygen
distance…

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Blood cells
Red blood cells transport oxygen.
White blood cells protect against disease.
Blood platelets help the blood to clot.
Red blood cells
These carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues.
The cells are tiny to allow them to pass through narrow
capillaries
They are biconcave shape…

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Our Blood Circulation:
Mammals have a double circulatory system ­ oxygenated blood
pumped around body at the same time deoxygenated blood
does.
Fish don't have double circulatory systems
Blood is oxygenated in the lungs, then goes to the heart where
it is pumped around the whole body,…

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The semi-lunar, tricuspid and bicuspid valves prevent backflow
The atria (plural of atrium) exert less pressure than the
ventricles so they have a thinner muscular wall.

Heart Problems:
Can be caused by high cholesterol (it builds up in arteries and
prevents blood supplying organs eg heart)
Old…

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Mitosis
Mitosis is the type of cell division used for growth and repair.

It creates 2 new cells from one

In mitosis each chromosome is copied exactly.

The new chromosomes are moved to opposite sides of the cell,

before the cell divides leaving one complete set of…

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The type of cell division that produces gametes with half the
normal chromosome number is called meiosis.
Gametes contain different genetic information to each other
and to the parent cell.
Meiosis is responsible for causing genetic variation.
haploid ­ having half the normal number of chromosomes




Cell…

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B3I - Cloning


o Childhood ­ Development of brain
o Adolescence ­ Completion of body development
o Maturity ­ Cell division for growth stops
o Old Age ­ No growth
The head grows slower than the rest of the body, if the head is
growing too slowly, or is too…

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