- Created by: Tia-H
- Created on: 17-04-19 19:57
A disease that can be passed from one organism to another.
Pathogens - Microorganisms that causes disease.
- Fungi - Spores, cause Rose Black Spot.
- Virus - Take over the cells cause Measles, HIV/ AIDs, Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
- Bacteria - Binary fission (DNA replicates), a toxin, causes Salmonella.
- Protists - Vector, Insecticide, For example, Mosquitoes carry Malaria.
- Destroy or control vectors and Isolation or seperation for hosts.
- Hygene - Handwashing, disinfectant, tissues, clean equipment.
Vaccination - Dead or inactive patogens are injected. E.g. MMR - Measles, mumps and rubella.
- Future infections are beaten rapidly as the antigens stimulate the antibodies (faster response).
- Herd immunity.
A disease that can not be passed from one organism to another.
- Cancer - Melignant (spreads), Benign (stays 1 place), Tumours.
- Casual Mechanism - 1 factor influences another through a biological process.
- Smoking - Narrows blood vessels, carcinogen (cancerous) cause heart attacks, strokes.
- Alcohol - Addictive, carcinogen, causes brain & liver damage.
- Diet & Exercise - Fatty build up, lack nutrients, cause obesity, Type 2 diabetes, anemia, rickets.
- Risk Factors - Life style & Environment.
Health - State of physical and mental wellbeing.
Human Defense System
Immune system - The organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to infection and toxins.
- Respiratory & Digestive system - Stomach acid, nose hair and mucus, cilia, trachea & bronchi coated with mucus.
- Skin - Protective barrier, hairs on the skin.
- White Blood Cells - Ingest pathogens, produce antitoxins & antibodies.
- Produced from a single clone of a cell.
- Proteins target the cells & chemicals.
- Used in pregnancy tests
- Target & bind specific antigens.
- Form of cancer treatment.
Plant Disease/ Response & Bacteria
- Mineral Deficiency - Yellowing leaves, nitrates - stop growing.
- Vectors - Aphids, feed on the glucose and nutrients.
- Detecting - Growth, leaf spots, decay, pests, discolour.
Plant Defence Systems
- Physical Barriers - Cellulose cell wall to strengthen, bark, waxy cuticle.
- Chemical Barrier - Antibacterial, pesticides.
- Defence Against Herbivores - Poison,thorns, hairy stems & leaves.
- PH and oxygen levels affect the rate.
- Nutrients are needed.
- Good medicine - Safe, effective, stabel, taken and leaves body.
- Pre-clinical testing - Live animals, cell tissue, efficiancy.
- 1) Low dose, Side effects
- 2) Small group of patients, Efficiency
- 3) Bigger group, Dosage
- 4) Double blind, Effectivness.
- Example: Penicilin - made from mold spores
- Cure bacterial diseases (from micro-organisms, not viral) builds resistant bacteria.
- DOES NOT cure,Relieves symptoms - for example: Asprin, Ibruprofen & Paracetamol.