Biology Topic 3

  • Created by: Tia-H
  • Created on: 17-04-19 19:57

Communicable Diseases

A disease that can be passed from one organism to another.

Pathogens - Microorganisms that causes disease.

  • Fungi - Spores, cause Rose Black Spot.
  • Virus - Take over the cells cause Measles, HIV/ AIDs, Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
  • Bacteria - Binary fission (DNA replicates), a toxin, causes Salmonella.
  • Protists - Vector, Insecticide, For example, Mosquitoes carry Malaria.

Preventing infection

  • Destroy or control vectors and Isolation or seperation for hosts.
  • Hygene - Handwashing, disinfectant, tissues, clean equipment.

Vaccination - Dead or inactive patogens are injected. E.g. MMR - Measles, mumps and rubella.

  • Future infections are beaten rapidly as the antigens stimulate the antibodies (faster response).
  • Herd immunity.
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Non-Communicable Diseases

A disease that can not be passed from one organism to another.

  • Cancer - Melignant (spreads), Benign (stays 1 place), Tumours.
  • Casual Mechanism - 1 factor influences another through a biological process.
  • Smoking -  Narrows blood vessels, carcinogen (cancerous) cause heart attacks, strokes.
  • Alcohol - Addictive, carcinogen, causes brain & liver damage.
  • Diet & Exercise - Fatty build up, lack nutrients, cause obesity, Type 2 diabetes, anemia, rickets.
  • Risk Factors - Life style & Environment.

Health - State of physical and mental wellbeing.

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Human Defense System

Immune system - The organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to infection and toxins.

  • Respiratory & Digestive system - Stomach acid, nose hair and mucus, cilia, trachea & bronchi coated with mucus.
  • Skin - Protective barrier, hairs on the skin.
  • White Blood Cells - Ingest pathogens, produce antitoxins & antibodies.

Monoclonal Antibodies

  • Produced from a single clone of a cell.
  • Proteins target the cells & chemicals.
  • Used in pregnancy tests
  • Target & bind specific antigens.
  • Form of cancer treatment.
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Plant Disease/ Response & Bacteria

Plant Disease

  • Mineral Deficiency - Yellowing leaves, nitrates - stop growing.
  • Vectors - Aphids, feed on the glucose and nutrients.
  • Detecting - Growth, leaf spots, decay, pests, discolour.

Plant Defence Systems

  • Physical Barriers - Cellulose cell wall to strengthen, bark, waxy cuticle.
  • Chemical Barrier - Antibacterial, pesticides.
  • Defence Against Herbivores - Poison,thorns, hairy stems & leaves.

Bacterial Growth

  • PH and oxygen levels affect the rate.
  • Nutrients are needed.
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Drugs

Development

  • Good medicine - Safe, effective, stabel, taken and leaves body.
  • Pre-clinical testing - Live animals, cell tissue, efficiancy.

Clinical trials 

  • 1) Low dose, Side effects 
  • 2) Small group of patients, Efficiency                         
  • 3) Bigger group, Dosage 
  • 4) Double blind, Effectivness.

Antibiotics

  • Example: Penicilin - made from mold spores
  • Cure bacterial diseases (from micro-organisms, not viral) builds resistant bacteria.

Painkillers

  • DOES NOT cure,Relieves symptoms - for example: Asprin, Ibruprofen & Paracetamol.
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