Beethoven's 1st symphony, Movement 1

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Structure

INTRO (bars 1 - 12) Tempo: 88

EXPOSITION (bars 13 - 109) Tempo: 112

1st subject (bars 13 - 33)

Bridge Passage (bars 33 - 52)

2nd subject (bars 52 - 88)

Codetta  (bars 88 - 109)

DEVELOPMENT (bars 110 - 178)

RECAPITULATION (bars 178 - 298)

1st subject (bars 178 - 188)

Bridge passage (bars 189 - 205)

2nd subject (bars 205 - 241)

Coda (bars 241 - 298)

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Texture (1)

Texture drops dramatically from intro to expo - more lighthearted mood

(7 - 11) Thick texture throughout perfect cadence

(32) Wind used to complement strings, antecedant and consequent

Flutes, clarinet and bassoon play 3 different octaves

(44 - 49) Conversation between strings and woodwind

(53 - 56) Exchange between oboe and flute

(69 - 75) Rhythmic semiquavers in low strings, f, thick texture

(77 - 87) Sparce texture, focus on modulating bassline

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Texture (2)

DEVELOPMENT

(122 - 129) Rapid violin notes create thick texture. Rising pattern from 1st subject passed around the woodwind and strings

(144 - 160) Dialogue between strings and woodwind - contrapuntal section

(162 - 172) Thick rhythmic texture ending the development RECAPITULATION (177 - 187) Melody played in octaves by all of the woodwind and strings - TUTTI (206 - 210) Antecedent and consequent in flutes/clarinet and oboes/bassons Sparce texture (228/9) Contrary motion in strings Coda - Ends emphatically with 5 crotchet chords of C

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Harmony (1)

INTRO in F Major - avoids the tonic C until bar 8
Uses tritone interval - tension from semitone intervals

EXPOSITION - C Major

Rising semitone used in syncopated chords (27/8)

(31 - 33) Perfect Cadence in C Major - Cadential 6/4

1st subject is very firmly in the tonic - Finishes on imperfect cadence rather than modulating

2nd Subject in G Major, the dominant

(52/3) Oboe plays augmented 4th interval from the

(65 - 67) Syncopated diminished 7 chords

(76 -77) Cadence in G Major but immediately into G Minor

(77 - 87) Modulating chromatic bassline - G C F C F D G A D E

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Harmony (2)

(100 - 109) Big cadence
(106 - 109) Slowly descending Dominant 7 arpeggio with decreasing dynamics

DEVELOPMENT

(114 - 130) Cycle of fifths
(131) Contrary motion in flutes and violins

(159) Italian augmented 6th into A Minor - UNUSUAL as it would usually return to the dominant prior to the recpaitulation

(162 - 172) Dominant Pedal in horns

RECAPITULATION

(178 - 188) Bass and timpani emphasise tonic

(188 - 198) Chromatically rising chords are extended

 

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Harmony (3)

(197 - 204) Dominant pedal in timpani

2nd subject in tonic C

(230) Tonality contadicted by the introduction of Eb Maj - TONAL UNREST - which darkens the mood to C Minor
(241) Resolution to C Major

(276 - End) Only chord heard is the tonic
Sustained motif from 2st subject is altered to fit in with tonic triad 

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Melody (1)

INTRO

Rising semitone motif - Tritone

EXPOSITION

(13 - 16) Rhythmic diminution of 1st subject 
(17 - 18) Syncopated rising semitone chord in woodwind

(41 - 44) Sequential passage in  violins - doubled by low strings in 43/44

2nd subject - woodwind play key role
(53 - 56) flute and oboe descending exchange

(79 - 87) Melancholy oboe pays melody - doubled in octaves at 82 - whole wind section joins at 85
Modulating bass line moves chromatically underneath

(106 - 109) descending dominant 7 arpeggios 

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Melody (2)

DEVELOPMENT

(110 - 114) Main motif from 1 st subject in Ab Major (tertiary shift) - followed by staccato from 2nd subject
Cycled through circle of fifths

(122) Rising pattern from first subject past around woodwind and strings

(142 - 159) Contrapuntal section combines 1st section melody and 2nd subject syncopation

RECAPITULATION

Melody doubled - TRIUMPHANT

(188 - 198) Chromatically rising chords from bars23/24 are extended to occupy 10 bars

(198 - 205) Rising semiquavers from bar are extended into an ascending and descending staccato motif in the violins (198 - 201) and then whole string section from 202 onwards

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