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1. Compare 1st and 2nd subjects for character of melody, rhythm, orchestration and texture.
2. Compare Exposition and Recapitulation largely the same course of events, but crucial
The Exposition and Recapitulation are similar in that they both consist of the 1st Subject,
Bridge Passage (unless in movement 2) and the 2nd Subject. However, the Recapitulation
contains a codetta which brings each movement to a close. Also, the sections within the
Recapitulation are adapted, for example, the 1st Subject might contain the same melody as
the 1st Subject from the Exposition but the melody will have been developed.
3. Compare different orchestration of corresponding passages.
4. Explain how all elements of music (melody, harmony, texture, rhythm, dynamics,
orchestration) project sonata structure.
The main melodic motifs are found in the 1st and 2nd Subjects of the Exposition and
developed throughout the piece. The piece is written in C major and modulates to the
dominant (G major) during the bridge passage of the Exposition. However, during the bridge
passage of the Recapitulation it does not modulate and remains in the tonic (C major). This is
what normally happens in sonata structure.
5. Identify thematic motifs how does Beethoven build this movement out of small fragments.
Note particularly the development and mini-development in the recap. Also, how does he
extend a motif repetition, sequence, fragmentation (causing increased urgency, often
accompanied by swifter harmonic rhythm)?
Beethoven extends a motif by developing it. He uses techniques such as sequence,
transposition, fragmenting, extending, augmentation and diminution.
6. Explain the tonally-ambiguous opening. For his first piece in the genre, this is strikingly
original and daring. How outrageous! What a cheeky fellow! He's undermining all the
established principles of opening a symphony. Or is he?
The piece is written in C major; however, it does not begin in C major. When it does finally
reach C major it is with a 2nd inversion which sounds weak and a C major chord is outlined in
the horn part. In bar 12 F#s are dismissed at the last second with Fs. C major is not firmly
established until bar 13 with the beginning of the 1st Subject.
7. How is the coda like a mini-development? Note Beethoven could probably have developed
this further, but choses not to. How does he manage to extend one chord of C major for so
long in the coda, whilst maintaining momentum?