How to our joints help us to move?
Vertebrates such as Humans have an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage for:
cartilage: covers the end of bones and is smooth for protection.
synovial fluid: lubricates and nourishes joint tissue.
synovial membrane: lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
Ligaments: are tough and elelastic and holds the bone together.
Tendons: are tough and inelastic and joins muscle to the bone.
Muscles can move bones ata a joint only by contractions so they operate in antagonistic pairs. When one muscle of an antagonistic pair contracts the other muscle relaxes.
How do we treat injuries to joints?
Some common injuries are:
- sprains- overstretched ligaments.
- dislocations- bones coming out of joint.
- torn ligaments.
- torn tendons.
If you have sprained your ankle it will be swollen, red or bruised looking and walking will be difficult.
rest- not moving the injured part Ice- slows the blood flow and reduces pain. Compress- bandage to reduce swelling. Elevate- raise to reduce blood flow and drain fluid.
Why do doctors and trainers ask so many questions?
Some factors that doctors need to know to diagnose or treat a problem are:
- Your symptoms.
- general health such as blood pressure.
- any medication you already on.
- Any previous health problems or treatments.
- Your alcohol or tobacco consumption.
- How much you exercise.
- Your family medical history.
Why do doctors and trainers need to know all this
- To ensure that what they suggest for you is safe.
- To plan a regime for you with realistic targets. The plan may be designed to cure you of a disease, improve your fitness or to get you back to normal after an injury or health problem (rehabilitation).
- As a baseline for monitoring your progress.
keeping accurate records is important. A treatment or an exercise plan may need to be changed because:
- It isn't working.
- its causing side effects.
In the case of side effects, treatment may be continued if the benefits are greater than the problems. However there are often alternative treatments that can be tried.
Doctors and trainers need to make sure that their way of monitoring patients or clients produces reliable data.
Following injury muscles and joints need to be exercised to recover their strength and mobility.