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Heterotrophs that feed on waste are called decomposers.

As there is less food and energy at each feeding level, there is a limit to the length of food

Soil contains biomass, inorganic particles (sand, silt, clay), air and water.


Energy from light is used to rearrange the…

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Bacteria can be grown on a large scale using fermenters.

Products made this way are: Antibiotics

Single-cell proteins

Enzymes for food manufacture.

Genetically modifying an organism means altering its characteristics by transferring genes
from another organism into its DNA. A vector is used to transfer the genes.

Genetic testing…

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Blood contains: Plasma contains water, glucose, hormones and waste

RBCs contain haemoglobin to carry oxygen.

WBCs some make antibodies, some engulf microorganisms.

Platelets fragments of cells that help blood clot at a wound.

Markers called antigens are on the surface of cells. Antibodies recognise foreign antigens
and destroy…

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A plan may be changed because it isn't working, or its causing side effects.


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