B2.1 Cell and simple cell transport

  • Created by: Fiona S
  • Created on: 27-04-15 19:46

Cell and cell structure

Most human and animal cells have the following parts:

  • a nucleus, which controls the activities of the cell
  • cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place
  • a cell membrane, which controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell
  • mitochondria, which is where most energy is released in respiration
  • ribosomes, which is where protein synthesis occurs.

Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell. Plant cells often have:

  • chloroplasts, which absorb light energy to make food
  • a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap.

A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall; the genes are not in a distinct nucleus.

Yeast is a single-celled organism. Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.

Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

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Cell Structure


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Dissolved Substances

Dissolved substances can move into and out of cells by diffusion.

Diffusion is the spreading of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution, resulting in a net movement from a region where they are of a higher concentration to a region with a lower concentration. The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.

Oxygen required for respiration passes through cell membranes by diffusion.

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