Cell biology

  • Created by: aejackson
  • Created on: 06-10-19 21:23
What are two different types of cells?
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
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What are prokaryotic cells?
Small and simple cells.
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What are eukaryotic cells?
Large and complex cells.
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Bacteria is a ......... cell.
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Animal and plants are ........... cells.
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Animal cells contain...
Everything a plant cell has except for a cell wall, vacuole and chloroplasts.
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Plant cells contain...
A nucleus, cytoplasm, a cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, a cell wall, a vacoule and chloroplasts.
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What is a nucleus?
It contains genetic material that controlls the cell's activity.
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What is cytoplasm?
A gel-like substance where chemical reactions occur. It contains enzymes that controll the reactions.
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What is the cell membrane?
It holds the cell together and controlls what goes in and out.
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What are mitochondria?
Where reactions for aerobic respiration occurs.
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What are ribosomes?
Where proteins are made in the cell
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What is the cell wall?
Made of cellulose. It supports the cell and strengthens it.
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What's the vacuole?
Contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts.
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What are chloroplasts?
Where photosynthesis occurs. They contain a green substance calles chlorophyll which absorbs light.
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Bacterial cells contain...
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall, circular strand of DNA, plasmids.
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Bacteria's nucleus is...
Not a true nuclues, it's just a single circular strand of DNA that floast freely in cytoplasm.
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What are plasmids?
Small rings of DNA
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Name the two different microscopes.
Electron and light microscope
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What is the equation for image size?
Magnification*real size
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What is the equation for magnification?
Image size/real size
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What is the equation for real size?
Image size/magnification
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What do you need to observe something on a microscope?
Water drop mixed with iodine, cover slip, slide, specimen stained with iodine and a microscope.
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What are the key features on a microscope?
Eyepiece, course adjustment knob, fine adjustment knob, stage, light, high and low power objective lens.
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What is differentation?
When cells become specialised to do a job.
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What are sperm cells specialised for?
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What are nerve cells specialised for?
Rapid signalling.
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What are muscle cells specialised for?
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What are root hair cells specialised for?
Absorbing water and minerals.
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What are phloeam and xylem cells specialised for?
Transporting substances.
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What is mitosis?
The cell produces two new daughter cells with the exact same DNA.
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What are stem cells?
They can become any type of cell that can cure many diseases and clone things.
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What is diffusion?
The spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable memebrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration.
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How do root hairs take in minerals?
Active transport.
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Why do we need active transport?
To stop us starving.
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What is active transport?
It absorbs minerals in plants and takes in glucose in humans.
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What is the exchange of substances?
When cells take in substances they need and get rid of waste products.
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What are examples of exchanges substances?
Oxygen and CO2 are transferred between cells and environment during gas excahnge.
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What are exchanging substances?
They allow efficient diffusion for multicellular organisms.
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What are multicellular organisms?
They have a small surface area compared to their volume.
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Where does gas exchange occur?
The lungs.
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What do the villi provide?
A big surface area.
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What does the structure of leaves allow?
Gases to diffuse in and out of cells.
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What do a fish's gills have and why?
A large surface area for gas exchage.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are prokaryotic cells?


Small and simple cells.

Card 3


What are eukaryotic cells?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Bacteria is a ......... cell.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Animal and plants are ........... cells.


Preview of the front of card 5
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