B2.1 CELLS AND SIMPLE CELL TRANSPORT
All living things are made up of cells. The structure of different types of cells are related to their functions. To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes.
B2.2 TISSUES, ORGANS AND ORGAN SYSTEMS
The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells; organs are aggregations of tissues performing specific physiological functions. Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms.
Green plants and algae use light energy to make their own food. They obtain the raw materials they need to make this food from the air and the soil. The conditions in which plants are grown can be changed to promote growth.
B2.4 ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Living organisms form communities, and we need to understand the relationships within and between these communities. These relationships are affected by external influences.
B2.5 PROTEINS-THEIR FUNCTIONS AND USES
Proteins have many functions, both inside and outside the cells of living organisms. Proteins, as enzymes, are now used widely in the home and in industry.
B2.6 AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
Respiration in cells can take place aerobically or anaerobically. The energy released is used in a variety of ways. The human body needs to react to the increased demand for energy during exercise.
B2.7 CELL DIVISION AND INHERITANCE
Characteristics are passed on from one generation to the next both in plants and animals. Simple genetic diagrams can be used to show this. There are ethical considerations in treating genetic disorders.
Changes in the environment of plants and animals may cause them to die out. The fossil record shows that new organisms arise, flourish and after a time, become extinct. The record also shows changes that lead to the formation of new species.