Augustus and Foriegn Policy

Control, Expansion Positives, Expansion Negatives

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  • Fair Taxation - less likely to rebel, more income to Empire
  • Committees could earn the right to become self governing and citizenship
  • Client Kingdoms (Self Governing in Romes interests)
  • Legions in Imperial Provinces (military control)
  • Cursor Publicus improved communications, monitor goings on, gain information
  • Augustus chose governor for Imperial provinces, Senate for Senatorial
  • Governor given set large salary, prevent likelihood of  over taxation causing resentment within the province
  • Governor controls legions, Procurator controls finance, both independent of each other Pro. only answerable to Augustus/Senate
  • Judicial Punishment, less change of rebellion, fairer punishments
  • Provincial Councils controlled Governors
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Expansion, Pro's

  • Defeat Enemies      
  •  Auxiliary Soldiers
  • More money from resources
  • Slaves
  • More land (increased grain supply for Rome)
  • Keeps army occupies (and not rebelling)
  • More money from taxation of Provinces
  • High profile for Emperor (winning=good military leader)
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Expansion, Con's

  • Army overstretched, maintenance
  • Client Kingdoms were essentially independent states and could rebel
  • Difficulties in communications
  • Governors and army harder to control from distance
  • Needed good motives to expand, could ruin Emperor
  • Expense
  • Came into contact with new enemies
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PaterculusGerman Disaster. Marcus Lollius' fault, 5th legion lost its standard in 16BC. Teutoburg Forest AD9, Varus lost 3 legions. Blame on poor leadership. Lollius 'persuit of profit rather than honourable conduct', Varus'better accustomed to the leisure of barrack life than active service' 

Suetonius'Augustus conquered...Yet Augustus never wantonly invaded any country and felt no temptation to increase the boundaries of the Empire, or enhance his own military glory'

Suetonius 'The gates of the Temple of Janus...he closed three times'

Suetonius 'He suffered only two heavy and disgraceful defeats...the generals concerned being Lollius and Varus'

Suetonius 'Augustus kept for himself the more vigorous provinces'

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Sources Continued

Res Gestae 'The Pannonian peoples...I conquered through Tiberius Nero'

Res Gestae 'A number of military standards lost by other commanders i recovered'

Strabo 'he divided the whole empire in two parts. One he assigned to himself, the other to the people of Rome'

Strabo 'The Turdetanias...have changed over completely yo the Roman way of life'

Tacitus 'the provinces to had little objection...They had lost faith in the rule of the senate and the people, having been denied the protection of the laws'

Tacitus'Augustus had forbidden enter Egypt'

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