- An emotional bond between two people.
- A two-way process that endures over time.
- Leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking.
- Serves the function of protecting an infant.
1 of 29
- A new response (conditioned response CR) is learned when a neutral stimulus (NS) is aassociated with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Initially, the UCS produces an unconditioned response (UCR). After learning, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces a CR.
- 'Unconditioned' means learning was not required.
2 of 29
- The name given to a group of explanations i.e. classical and operant conditioning.
- Essentially, these explain behaviour in terms of learning rather than any inborn tendancies (the biological/evolutionary approach) or higher order thinking (the cognitive approach).
3 of 29
- Each time you do something and it results in a pleasant consequence, the behaviour is 'stamped in' (reinforcement). It becomes more probable that you will repeat that behaviour in the future.
- If you do something and it results in an unpleasant consequence (punishment), it becomes less likely that you will repeat that behaviour.
- A reinforcer in anything that provides reinforcement. A primary reinforcer is an innate reinforcer. A secondary reinforcer is one that is aquired through experience.
4 of 29
- The view that there is a link between an infant's early attachment relationship and later behaviour.
5 of 29
Internal Working Model
- A cluster of concepts about relationships.
- In the short-term, it gives the child insight into the caregiver's behaviour.
- In the long-term, it acts as a template for future relationships because it generates expectations about how people behave.
6 of 29
- The idea that the one relationship that the infant has with his.her primary attachment figure is of special significance in emotional development.
7 of 29
Primary Attachment Figure
- The person who has formed the closest bond with a child.
- Demonstrated by the intensity of the relationship.
- Usually, a child's biological mother, but could be an adoptive mother, a father, grandmother, etc.
8 of 29
Secondary Attachment Figure
- Acts as a kind of emotional safety net.
- Contributes to social development.
9 of 29
- A biologically-determined period of time during which a child is particularly sensitive to a specific form of stimulation.
- Resulting in the development of a specific response or characteristic.
10 of 29
- A social behaviour or characteristic which eleicits a caregiving reaction.
11 of 29
- The view that attachment type can be explained in terms of an infant's innate temperament rather than caregiver sensitivity.
12 of 29
- Develops as a result of caregiver's lack of sensitive responding to an infant's needs.
- May be associated with poor cognitive and emotional development.
13 of 29
- Infants are willing to explore and unresponsive to mother's return; they generally avoid social interaction and intimacy with others.
14 of 29
- Infants who are less interested in exploring and show distress on mother's return; generally they both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction.
15 of 29
- Infants who lack consistent patterns of attachment behaviour.
16 of 29
- Infants who display affection to strangers and may be attention-seeking.
17 of 29
- Willing to explore, easy to soothe, high stranger anxiety.
- Infant is comfortable with social interaction and intimacy.
- Related to healthy subsequent cognitive and emotional development.
- Develops as a result of sensitive responding by caregiver to the infant's needs.
18 of 29
- Distress shown by an infant when separated from his/her attachment figure.
19 of 29
- Method to assess strength of attachment.
- Conducted in a novel environment.
- Involves eight episodes.
- Infant's behaviour observed as mother leaves and returns, and when stranger is present.
- Measures attachment in terms of stranger anxiety and separation anxiety.
20 of 29
- Distress shown by an infant when approached by an unfamiliar person.
21 of 29
- The rules, customs, morals and ways of interacting that bind together members of a society or collection of people.
22 of 29
- Any culture that places more value on the 'collective' rather than the individual.
- And on interdependence rather than independence.
- The opposite is true of individualist culture.
23 of 29
- A technique or theory that is developed in one culture and then used to study the behaviour of people in a different culture.
- Such a technique or theory may be meaningless when used with people who have had different experiences or have different values.
24 of 29
- An 'institution' is a place dedicated to a particular task, such as looking after children awaiting adoption, caring for the mentally ill, or looking after patients in hospital.
- A place where people are looked after for a period of time, as opposed to day care or outpatient care where people go home every day.
- In the past, such institutions had fairly strict regimes and offered little emotional care.
25 of 29
- A psychiatric disorder characterised by an individual's inability to identify a preferred attachment figure.
- Individuals typically show an inability to interact and relate to others, evident before the age of 5.
- Individuals may lack a conscience and be unable to trust others or form lasting relationships.
26 of 29
- Children who experience emotional deprivation are often physically smaller.
- Emotional disturbance (stress) may affect the production of hormones, such as growth hormones, and lead to a kind of 'dwarfism'.
27 of 29
- The failure to develop any attachments during early life.
- This is contrasted with 'deprivation' or 'disruption', where attachment bonds have been formed, but may be disrupted. Such disruption may last for weeks or a lifetime (in the case of parental death).
28 of 29
- A form of temporary care (i.e. not all day and night).
- Not provided by parents.
- Usually takes place outside of the home.
29 of 29