ATTACHMENT

ATTACHMENT

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  • Created on: 19-12-10 13:41

ATTACHMENT 10

Define the following terms:

Behaviourism

All behaviour is learnt from the envrionment through experience. We should follow scientific principles and only study behaviour we can see i.e not what goes on in people's minds. 

Cognitive approach

The mind is like a computer, it inputs, stores and retrieves info.

Evolutionary approach

Humans have evolve to behave in ways which help us to survive and pass on our genes.

Social learning approach

We can learn from our environment by observing and imitating role models.

Primary care giver 

The person who takes care of an infants everyday psychical and emotional needs. 


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ATTACHMENT 11 BOWLBY TOA

What is innate programming?

Inherited behaviours from our parents which increase our chances of survival and reproduction which will carry on through generations. Infants are born 'programmed' to become attached to their care giver, and adults are also 'programmed' to form this kind of relationship with the infant.

Attachment should be within the framework of evolutionary principles -all psychological and physical characteristics are naturally selected. These characteristics have evolved over time to enable us to reproduce and survive. 

What else helps the infant to survive? 

SOCIAL RELEASERS - any behaviour elicited by the infant that encourage the care giver to provide attention/care  i.e infant cries, screams and the care giver responds.

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ATTACHMENT 12 BOWLBY TOA

What is the internal working model?

Relationships with one special attachment figure provide an infant with tan internal working model of relationships which are based on their feelings of security. 

Avoidant children are assumed to have what type of care giver?

Neglecting/Rejecting.  

 

This results in the infant having an internal working model of themselves as what?

 

Unacceptable/unworthy

Ambivalent children tend to have a what type of primay care giver?

Inconsistent. 

 This results in the infant having an internal working model of themselves as what?

They would have a negative self image and may exaggerate their emotional responses - to obtain more attention.

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ATTACHMENT 13 BOWLBY TOA

Critical period:

If development doesn't take place in the first 2 and a half years of an infants life, they will struggle to make attachments later in life, if any at all. In more extreme cases the infant may die.

Monotropy:

 The bond a child forms with their mother is of a different quality from the bond it form with others.


Explain attachment from the evolutionary perspective using Bowlby’s terminology:

Humans have EVOLVED in a way that infants are born with INATEPROGRAMMING which ensures they FORM ATTACHMENTS and therefore increase their chances of SURVIVAL


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ATTACHMENT 14 BOWLBY TOA

The continuity hypothesis:

It relates to the internal working model and provides one possible explanation of the fact that early patterns pf attachment are related to later childhood characteristics. 

 

 Hazan and Shaver 


Give evidence to support the continuity hypothesis - 

securely attached infants go on to have stable, secure adult relationships – as the theory predicts.

Bowlby said..

Attachment is crucial for - Survival. Infants are physically - Helpless. Infants depend on adults to ensure they survive and - Develop. Adults feed, care and - Protect the infant. Without the adults assistance the infant would - Die.


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ATTACHMENT 15 BOWLBY TOA

What are the 3 key features of Bowlby's theory of attachment?

-infants & caregivers are innately programmed to form attachments

-attachment is a biological process that takes place during the critical period or not at all

-attachment plays an important role in later development 


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ATTACHMENT 16 BOWLBY TOA

Evaluation:

SUPPORTING EVIDENCE

The Minnesota longitudinal study (Sroufe et al., 1999) – 

Their findings showed that social incompetence was associated with early attachment style. Securely attached children were rated as being more: popular, having more initiative, having higher self esteem & confidence. 

McCarthy (1999) 

 Women previously classified as being anxious-insecure were more like to have romantic problems and women who were clasified as being restistent-avoidant were more likely to have problems with friendships. 

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ATTACHMENT 17 BOWLBY TOA

CONTRADICTORY EVIDENCE Give two examples:

-Doesn't explain why some children are able to cope/ return back to normal after poor attachment experiences, (deprivation & privation) while others suffer long term effects.

-The theory is based on a judgement of looking into the past and saying a specific behaviour must be adaptive because it persists. In other words we are assuming that it's likely. Whereas it could be that the value of behaviour could simply be neutral rather than positive or reoccurring. 

Despite the criticisms Bowlby's theory is what? (give 3)

-Still a major theory of attachment to this day

-Generates a great deal of research

-Has an enormous impact on the emotional care given to an infant. 

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ATTACHMENT 18 BOWLBY TOA

Summary of Bowlby's Theory of attachment:

According to Bowlby..

Attachments are ..? Innately programmed (inherited) + adaptive

Which helps infants and care givers form ..? Attachments

Bonds are formed with caregivers who respond most what to the infant's needs? Sensitively.

Bonds with a caregiver and an infant must occur when? During the the critical period (first 2 and a half years) or not at all.

If an infant fails to form attachment during the critical period what would happen later in life? They would never be able to form attachments. 

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ATTACHMENT 19 BOWLBY TOA

Infants form different quality attachments with their mother than anyone else, what's this called?

Monotropy.

Why might feminists challenge the theory?

It tries to confine women to their home - to look after the children; essentially they feel guilty if they go out and work, and if they don't work they're being under represented. 

Why might Bowlby's theory be outdated?

He presented his findings in the 1950's after the war -when women were sent back home and encouraged to look after the children. 

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