Atoms and Elements

Atoms and Elements

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  • Created by: Meghna
  • Created on: 10-05-10 18:21

Lego Models

Lego Models

  • There are 92 naturally occurring elements on the Earth
  • Each element is made up of individual atoms, for example there are copper atoms inside a piece of copper
  • All of these copper atoms are the same
  • Sometimes separate atoms split into groups called molecules, oxygen is like this
  • Sulphur has the largest groups of molecules: S8, this means 8 sulphur atoms are joined together in a ring molecule
  • When different elements combine we get different materials called compounds
  • Sulphur and oxygen combine together to create sulphur oxide, SO2
  • A molecule has more particles than an atom
  • The molecule gas ozone is written O3 this means that 3 oxygen atoms join together and create a molecule ring
  • Atoms cannot be created or destroyed, they can be lost
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Chemical Alphabet

Chemical Alphabet

  • There are more than 100 elements but only 92 of them occur naturally, the rest are artificial
  • A chemical symbol is a useful shorthand
  • The names and symbols of some elements are named after a famous person or place
  • A one-penny-piece is covered in copper metal and is about 2cm across
  • Many secondary schools have 1000 students. We can calculate that there are about 75 million copper atoms making up a line on this penny then if each person counted one copper atom every second then 1000 students would need 24hours to count all of them
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Getting Sorted

Getting Sorted

  • The periodic table is divided into metals and non-metals
  • Each kind of element has its own kind of properties
  • There are some exceptions to this, graphite is a non-metal but conducts both heat and electricity
  • The periodic table shows the elements in a special order:
  • 1 is alkali metals, number 2 is allkaline earth metals, number 7 is halogens and number 8 is noble gasses
  • Every element has its own atomic number
  • The table is in order of atomic numbers
  • Metals are all on one side and non-metals are opposite
  • The vertical columns in the periodic tables are called groups
  • elements in the same group have very similar characteristics
  • At room temperature there are only 2 liquid elements: (metal) mercury and (non-metal) bromine
  • Elements do melt if you heat them at high temperatures
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All Mixed Up

All Mixed Up

  • If you put appples and oranges together you get a mixture
  • it is easy to separate this mixture
  • there are only 3 metals that are attracted to a magnet: iron, cobalt and nickel
  • Mixtures can be separated physically by using a magnet to seperate non-metals and metals
  • Mixtures have just the properties of the things in the mixture meaning in iron sulphide only the sulphur fizzes in an acid
  • Iron Sulphide is a mixture because it can be easily separated with a magnet
  • Mixtures of elemnts can be made using different amounts of each one meaning they dont have to be equal, so ten parts iron and 1 part sulphur is still a mixture
  • Most of the air we breathe is made up of nitrogen, a small part is made up of oxygen
  • the moelcules in oxygen and nitrogen are paired up in twos
  • We can separate the air by boiling it as we can let the gasses cool down until it is liquid, then boil it as nitrogen has a different boiling point to oxygen
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