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Shadows Umbra and Penumbra




The shadows Umbra and Penumbra are formed by light
Umbra is the darkest
Penumbra is the lightest
This happens when you shine a light on an object
The object blocks the light

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Thus forming umbra and penumbra

The Different phases of the moon when orbiting the earth

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Eclipses

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Pinhole Camera




The light is pointed opposite as seen in the picture
That makes the picture upside down
A pinhole camera's hole is made by a pin hence the name
pinhole camera

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Food Groups


Carbohydrates- Carbohydrates give you energy. They contain the
elements Carbon Hydrogen and oxygen. There is always more hydrogen
as there is oxygen. There are two sub-groups of carbohydrates:



Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) are sweet and dissolve easily. An
example of a useful sugar in humans is Glucose.



Complex carbohydrates…

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More Notes


Carbohydrates- Glucose, sugars and provide instant energy,
Polysaccharides from bread pasta etc. And gives energy storage



Fats- Don't mix with the body's cells or water. Twice as much energy per
mass then carbohydrates. They are protected by protein.



Protein- Large Molecules made of amino acids. Each acid contains…

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Water- 70% of the body is water. Helps transport substances around the
body. It is used to cool the body. If you lose 6% of the water in you body
you faint and 8% you die. You lose water when you sweat



Things containing each group:



Carbohydrates: Fats:










Protein: Fibre:…

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The Digestive System



Mouth The saliva lubricates the food. Then the salivary gland
produces an Enzyme named Amylase. This enzyme breaks down
starch in the food. Then it produces maltose



Oesophagus Forms a passage from the mouth to the stomach
allowing the food to reach the stomach



Stomach This produces…

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contains Amylase. Protease, lipase and Carbohydrates. The
lipase and Carbohydrases are made by the intestine wall while
Lipase, Protease and Amylase are made by the Pancreas.



Protease Produces Amino acids

Amylase produces maltose

Lipase produces glycerol and fatty acids

Carbohydrases produces glucose and simplest sugars



Large Intestine Stores water and…

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