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Shadows Umbra and Penumbra
The shadows Umbra and Penumbra are formed by light
Umbra is the darkest
Penumbra is the lightest
This happens when you shine a light on an object
The object blocks the light…read more

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Thus forming umbra and penumbra
The Different phases of the moon when orbiting the earth…read more

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Eclipses…read more

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Pinhole Camera
The light is pointed opposite as seen in the picture
That makes the picture upside down
A pinhole camera's hole is made by a pin hence the name
pinhole camera…read more

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Food Groups
Carbohydrates- Carbohydrates give you energy. They contain the
elements Carbon Hydrogen and oxygen. There is always more hydrogen
as there is oxygen. There are two sub-groups of carbohydrates:
Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) are sweet and dissolve easily. An
example of a useful sugar in humans is Glucose.
Complex carbohydrates are large molecules made of many glucose
units. They are not sweet.
Fats- These also contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen. These do not
dissolve in water they are combined with protein.…read more

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More Notes
Carbohydrates- Glucose, sugars and provide instant energy,
Polysaccharides from bread pasta etc. And gives energy storage
Fats- Don't mix with the body's cells or water. Twice as much energy per
mass then carbohydrates. They are protected by protein.
Protein- Large Molecules made of amino acids. Each acid contains
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. They also contain sulphur acid. Protein are
used for growth and repair.
Mineral salts- These soluble chemicals are the same as the nutrients
needed by plants.…read more

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Water- 70% of the body is water. Helps transport substances around the
body. It is used to cool the body. If you lose 6% of the water in you body
you faint and 8% you die.…read more

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The Digestive System
Mouth The saliva lubricates the food. Then the salivary gland
produces an Enzyme named Amylase. This enzyme breaks down
starch in the food. Then it produces maltose
Oesophagus Forms a passage from the mouth to the stomach
allowing the food to reach the stomach
Stomach This produces a juice named Gastric Juice which
contains Hydrochloric Acid. The Hydrochloric Acid kills most of
the microorganisms in the food. The stomach also produces an
enzyme named protease which breaks down protein.…read more

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Amylase. Protease, lipase and Carbohydrates. The
lipase and Carbohydrases are made by the intestine wall while
Lipase, Protease and Amylase are made by the Pancreas.…read more


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